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To free from difficulties or obstacles; to make easier; to assist something to happen.
To hold back or repress.
The physiological readiness of the human system for activity.
Awake and attentive to normal levels of stimulation.
Appears drowsy and may fall asleep, if not stimulated in some way.
Difficult to arouse from a somnolent state and frequently confused when awake.
Responds only to strong, generally noxious stimuli and returns to unconscious when the stimulus is removed.
Cannot be aroused by any type of stimulation.
Responsible for superficial sensations via skin and subcutaneous tissue (pain, temperature, light, touch, pressure)
Responsible for deep sensation via muscles, tendons, joints, ligaments, deep fascia (proprioception, kinesthesia, vibration)
Slow, maintained stretch, applied at maximum available lengthened range.
Deep, maintained pressure across longitudinal axis of tendons; maintained pressure on muscles.
Brief light contact to skin.
- Retention of body heat
- Generalized inhibition of tone
- Calming effect, relaxation
- Wrapping the body or body parts: blankets, ace wrap
- Inhibits tone and decreased neural firing
- May get a sympathetic nervous system response such as a withdrawal
- Immersion in cold water or ice chips, ice packs, ice massage, cryocuff
- Activates primarily otolith organs
- Inhibits or dampens of muscle tone
- Decreases arousal
- Dampens vestibulospinal input
Slow vestibular stimulation
- Activates semicircular canals and otolith organs
- Generalized arousal
- Stimulates vestibulospinal input
- Stimulates vestibuloocular reflex
- Contraindicated for patients with seizures
Fast irregular vestibular stimulation
Can increase or decrease arousal with light, color, familiar objects, and/or visual background.
Augmented visual stimulation
Maximum resistance produces overflow from strong to weak or to contralateral extremity.
Irradiation or overflow
- Compression of joint surfaces activates joint receptors
- Facilitates postural extensors and contraction for stabilizing
Brief stretch applied to a muscle to activate muscle spindles.
Stroking with fingers and palm over a muscle or muscle group to initiate a contraction by approximating fibers.
Also called postexcitatory inhibition with stretch, range of motion, and rotation.
Slow, rhythmic movement along the long axis of the body or long axis of extremity.