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  1. 1.Respiratory System
-Main Function
    Ensure proper cellular function
  2. 1. Respiratory Pump

    • -Inspiration and expiration
    • -In thoracic cavity
  3. Inspiration
    -2 types

    -Muscles used
    • Process of actively contracting inspiratory muscles to move air into body
-Quiet breathing at normal rest
 Diaphragm, External intercostals
    • -Heavy, deep, forced breathing
Add Scalenes, Sternocleidomastoid, Pectoralis minor
  4. Expiration
-Muscles used
    • Process of actively or passively relaxing inspiratory muscles to move air out of body
    • -Internal intercostals, Abdominals
  5. Pressure relationship inside and outside
    When Intrapulmonary pressure goes below Atmospheric pressure, air draws into lungs
  6. Conduction Passageways

    • All structures before respiratory passageways
    • -Nasal, oral, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchioles
    • -Purify, humidify, and warm or cool
  7. Respiratory Passageways
    Bronchi, bronchioles, Alveoli, Alveolar sacs
  8. Alveoli sacs
    Where O2 and CO2 and transported in and out of blood through diffusion
  9. VO2

    • Oxygen consumption
    • -At rest 3.5 ml of oxygen per kilogram of bodyweight per minute (1 MET)

    VO2= cardiac output (hrxsv) - a- v O2 (difference in O2 content between blood in arteries and blood in veins)
  10. VO2 Max
    Highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximum physical exertion (11-23 METS)

    -Maximal testing not always practical for most clients so estimate using other methods every couple weeks or months.
  11. Aerobic Activity
    Bodily function prolonged for 30 seconds or more. Requires oxygen.
  12. Anaerobic Activity
    Activities lasting less than 30 seconds. Doesn't require oxygen.
  13. Bioenergetics
    The study of energy in the human body. ◦-How chemical energy (food) is converted into mechanical energy (work)
  14. Energy Yielding
    • During bioenergetics when chemical bonds are broken---energy is released to produce work (muscle contractions)
    • - 

Also called an Energy Utilizing Reaction
  15. ATP

    Cellular structure that collects energy and stores it and delivers it to usage site


-Adenine (a nitrogen based compound)
-Ribose (a five carbon sugar)

    • -3 Phosphates
  16. 3 Bioenergetic Pathways for ATP production
    Anaerobic: 1 ATP-CP pathway and 2 Glycolysis pathway
Aerobic: 3 Oxidative pathway

    -All three together= Bioenergetic Continuum
  17. ATP-CP Pathway (Phosphagen system)
-For what
    • -Provides energy for high intensity, short duration activity. (power and strength)
    • -Produces energy more rapidly than other two systems
    • -Enzyme Myosin ATPase causes break off of one of phosphates of ATP= ADP (adenosine diphosphate). This creates energy
    • -10 second duration
  18. Glycolysis Pathway

    -By product
    • Uses breakdown of carbs (glucose) to produce ATP
    • -1 Glucose molecule produces 2 ATP through anaerobic glycolysis
    • -One by product is Pyruvate. If not used up fast enough by muscle cell, can cause lactic acid build up
    • -30 to 50 second duration
  19. Oxidative Pathway

    -Relies on
-How works

    -Speed compared to others
-ATP production compared
    • -Relies on carbs and fats.
    • -Glucose from glycogen stores broken down by oxygen. With oxygen, pyruvate not converted to lactic acid- becomes usable for ATP production
    • -Slowest producing system
    • -Greater amount of ATP
    • One Glucose= 36 ATP
    • -Activities longer than 30 seconds- predominant in activities more than 2 minutes
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