PSYC 153

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PSYC 153
2010-03-15 18:33:04

Final exam
Show Answers:

  1. _____ is a condition in which people lose almost all output from the brain to both the muscles & the autonomic nervous system, although they continue to receive senstations while _____ is a condition in which the autonomic system fails to influence the body.
  2. Locked-in syndrome; pure autonomic failure
  3. According to Darwin, why did an "angry" facial expression first become associated with anger?
    It is a habit; an angry facial expression usually helps prepare us to attack.
  4. Criticisms of Schachter & Singer's findings were discussed in class. Which of the following accurately describes one of those criticisms?
    There were no differences in self-reported emotion between the epinephrine and placebo groups.
  5. As discussed in the book, Klaus Scherer & colleagues researched whether particular emotions accompany the same appraisals, or different ones, in 37 separate cultures. What did they find (Hint: Chapter 3 had 2 pages of graphs on this) ?
    Many appraisal patterns are widely associated with the same emotion across cultures, with some exceptions such as the link of appraisals of fairness and morality with specific emotions.
  6. Which of the following accurately represents the findings from studies discussed in class that examined children who were blind & deaf from birth?
    These children show basic emotional expressions similar to those seen in sighted children.
  7. Given that he was one of the 1st people to define emotion in motivational terms, ____ might be considered the father of _____.
    Aristotle - functionalism
  8. According to the strong version of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, would someone who is not Czech be able to experience "litost," a Czech word with no exact translation into any other language?
    No, people can only have those experiences for which they have words.
  9. Which of the following are accurate differences between the SNS & PNS nervous systems?
    a. the SNS dilates pupils while the PNS constricts pupils
    b. the SNS decreases saliva while the PNS increases saliva
    c. the SNS tends to influence many organs at once while the PNS tends to influence only one organ at a time
    all of the above
  10. In a study by Maranon discussed in class, subjects were given shots of adrenaline & asked to describe the experience. The majority of the people siad it was "as if" they were experiencing an emotion like anxiety or anger. Cannon interpreted these results to mean:
    Physiological arousal is not sufficient to create emotional experience.
  11. In the book & lecture notes, a recent study (2005) was discussed by Adolph et. al. These researchers examined recognition of emotion in a patient who had bilateral amygdala damage. What did this study find?
    The patient could only recognize the facial expression for fear when the patient focused on the eyes of the person making the facial expression.
  12. In 1954, Ax ran an experiment where subjects were attached to a "shock machine." This machine was actually recording a number of physiological measures. The subjects were made to believe that an intense electrical shock was imminent because of an inept research assistant. After the threat was removed, while still attahed to the machine, subjects were treated rudely in an effort to anger them. The results showed that:
    About half of the physiological measures differed btwn. the fear & anger conditions
  13. Ledoux proposed that there are two pathways by which emotion (particularly fear) may be elicited. Which of the following is true of the "low road"?
    It only provides crude information rather than detailed representations of the world.
  14. Select the correct breakdown of the nervous system...
    The nervous system consists of the central NS & the peripheral NS. The peripheral NS is further subdivided into the somatic NS & the autonomic NS; the autonomic NS, is further subdivided into the sympathetic NS & the parasympathetic NS.
  15. The Harris theory of the Stage Fright Studies is that:
    If the individual is nervous about the physical manifestations of nervousness then beta blockers are more likely to help
  16. Which of the following is NOT an example of a simple phobia?
    a. Fear of spiders
    b. Fear of panic attacks
    c. Fear of heights
    d. Fear of closed spaces
    e. Fear of birds
    Fear of panic attacks.
  17. Both ____ & ____ propose that different emotions are associated w/different patterns of autonomic arousal/unique body states.
    Modern Centralists; James-Lange
  18. Suppose you are engrossed in a phone conversation while walking across the street. You look up & see a car is heading straight for you. You immediately jump out of the way & your heart races & blood pressure increase. The perception of these changes in your body leads you to experience fear. This sequence of emotion is best described by which of the following theories?
    James-Lange Theory
  19. Which of the following is true regarding lie detection?
    a. When lying, people often will look up and to the left
    b. Behavioral disagreement or inconsistencies of the face, voice, and body often occur when someone is lying.
    c. A liar's true emotion may be evident in their micro-expressions.
    d. All of the above
    e. B and C only
    e. B and C only
  20. Magna Arnold would disagree with which of the following statements?
    a. Appraisal is always a conscious process.
    b. Appraisal is a "sense" judgment.
    c. Appraisal is an ongoing process.
    d. Appraisal adds personal relevance to perception.
    Appraisal is always a conscious process.
  21. Ekman went to Paupa New Guinea in the 1960s & performed studies w/the local population on which facial expressions were associated with which emotional situations. What did they find?
    There is general cross-cultural agreement on which emotions are associated with which facial expressions. Happiness is the more widely recognized emotion.
  22. When Cornelius' dog, Bridget, was angry, she would bark and snarl at cars. However, when Cornelius yelled at her to stop, she would meekly turn to him & show behaviors that appeared to be the opposite of those of aggression. These latter behaviors would be an example of the principle of?
  23. Based on lecture, the ____ plays an important role in coordinating emotional behaviors & the _____ serves as a central relay station for sensory information.
    hypothalamus; thalamus
  24. Anger may not always be thought of as one cohesive emotion - rather, it could be a compound of several different elements, such as furrowing the brow, compression of the lips, etc. each of which may mean something different. This view of anger is an illustration of which view of emotion according to the book?
    Component Process Theory
  25. Suppose you read about a randomized study in which researchers conditioned participants to experience fear to four objects (conditions): snake, gun, spider, and knife. Based on class discussion about fear and anxiety, which of the following best describes the expected results?
    Participants in the snake and spider conditions will experience fear more quickly than participants in the gun and knife conditions.
  26. Which of the following best represents the results of studies that examine emotion in people with spinal cord injury?
    Although initial results suggested that spinal cord injury may dampen some experience of emotion, sudies with improved methodology indicate little difference between those with spinal cord injury and relevant controls.
  27. An essential feature of ____ is an excessive worry about two or more life circumstances:
    Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  28. For which types of subjects would Beta Blockers be effective in reducing feelings of anxiety?
    a. Clinical populations with anxiety disorders
    b. Animals undergoing fear conditioning
    c. Actors who did not learn their lines well
    d. All of the above
    e. None of the above
    e. None of the above
  29. Which of the following is a basic tenet of the strong version of the Social Constructivist theory of emotion?
    a. There are many innate emotions.
    b. Emotions are prescribed sets of responses to be followed in certain situations.
    c. Emotions are learned from ones culture.
    d. All of the above are basic tenets of the strong version of Social Constructivism.
    e. B and C only.
    e. B and C only.
  30. In regards to Ekman's Neuro-Cultural theory, Keltner & Haidt's "levels of analysis" conception, and Russell's model using emotional episodes, which of the following is false?
    A. Ekman's model focuses more on the facial displays of emotion than the other two theories.
    B. According to Keltner & Haidt, the dyadic and group levels are largely innate and universal.
    C. All 3 views agree that the frequency of certain appraisals can vary across cultures.
    D. Russell is the one that would be most likely to use the term "scripts" when talking about the sequence of events & responses that make up emotions.
    B. According to Keltner and Haidt, the dyadic and group levels are largely innate and universal.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. In line with the contention that emotions have adaptive functions, there are some physiological findings (i.e. Schwartz et. al.) that are consistent with the hypothesis that the changes that accompany anger may function to ____ while the changes that accompany fear may function to ____?
    reduce bleeding ; improve speed and endurance.
  32. 2 anxiety disorders/phobias are sometimes mistaken for one another because patients can become virtually housebound. One way to distinguish btwn these 2 is to ask patients the following question: "Would you leave your house and go out if you could be assured that you would not meet anyone while out?" Patients from one of the 2 groups, namely _____, usually answer ____ to this question.
    Social phobia; yes
  33. According to the video viewed in class on laughter, which of the following statements is true?
    a. Starting around age 5, the frequency of laughter decreases as we get older.
    b. When conversing, laughing almost always occurs at the end of a phrase break.
    c. Chimps also exhibit laughter (panting) & it occurs when they are touched or tickled.
    d. All of the above
    e. A and B only
    d. All of the above
  34. Buss et al. (1992) did 3 studies comparing men's and women's responses to imagined sexual versus emotional infidelity, using S-R & physiological measures. Which of the following was NOT one of their findings?
    A. On the forced-choice S-R item, the vast majority of men (over 90%) reported that a mate's sexual infidelity would be worse than a mate's emotional infidelity.
    B. Men showed greater physiological arousal when imagining sexual infidelity than when imagining emotional infidelity.
    C. On the forced-choice S-R item, the majority of women reported that a mate's emotional infidelity would be worse than a mate's sexual infidelity.
    D. On the forced choice S-R item, more men than women thought that a mate's sexual infidelity would be worse than a mate's emotional infidelity.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. The Minnesota Twin Study found a high correlation in the happiness level of identical twins, even when they were raised apart (r~ = .5) They also found that happiness seems to be interactive. If they had found that happiness was additive, what correlation would we expect to see in fraternal twins given the .5 for identical twins?
    r = .25
  36. Based on nonverbal displays, which of the following emotions occurs later in development than the other emotions on the list?
    A. Jealousy
    B. Embarrassment
    C. Positive affect (as indicated by laughter)
    d. All of the above emerge at roughly the same time in an infant's development.
    B. Embarrassment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. In an embarrassing situation, the embarrassed individual ________.
    a. tries to repair the situation using verbal eans about 75% of the time.
    b. shifts their gaze a lot & looks down and to the left.
    c. looks away after their smile reaches its apex.
    d. all of the above.
    e. A & B only
    e. A & B only
  38. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a fake smile?
    A. Activation of the orbicularis oculi
    B. an assymetric smile
    C. Activation of the zygomatic major
    D. It is sudden and breif, or lasts longer than 4 seconds
    e. All of the above are characteristics of a fake smile
    A. Activation of the orbicularis oculi.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. According to lecture, a "primitive form" of jealousy is characterized as _____, while the "elaborated form" of jealousy is characterized as _____.
    a. Not requiring much cognition; containing appraisals of the interaction between the loved one and rival.
    b. An urge; an interpretation of how the interaction between the loved one and rival affects the individual
    c. An impulse to stop the interaction of the loved one and rival; involving an appraisal that often involves issues of one's self-concept/self-esteem.
    d. All of the above.
    d. All of the above.
  40. Cameron's study of disabled individuals (including those who were born with disabilities and those who acquired disabilities) found that, compared with controls matched on sex, age & income, the disabled group reported that their lives were ______ difficult, and they reported that overall their life satisfaction was _______ than that of the non-disabled group (note: this was discussed in lecture but is not the lottery study)?
    more; no different
  41. Semin and Manstead (1982) conducted an experiment in which a man knocked down a large display of toilet paper. In the video, he either fixed the display, or left it to be fixed by someone else. Further, the man either showed embarrassment or not. Subjects rated the man's likeability for the four conditions in which of the following orders (ordered from most to least likeable)?
  42. Sabini and colleagues conducted a study on 3 categories of situations that evoke embarrassment. What did they find?
    People who were prone to experience embarrssment over one type of scenario (e.g. "Mistakes") were not particularly prone to embarrassment over other types of scenarios (e.g. "Center of Attention")
  43. Overall, what is the general conclusion of the American Scientist jealousy article in your reader by Professor Harris?
    While hypothetical forced-choice questions produced gender differences, there are not gender differences in responses to questions about jealousy over actual infidelity.
  44. A _____ approach to jealousy would likely suggest that cognition is confined to detection of inidelity, and a _____ approach would likely suggest that the same jealousy mechanism is active across interpersonal contexts.
    JSIM; Social-cognitive
  45. Lewis et al. conducted a study in part of which children had red blush applied to their nose without their knowledge. When the child later looked in the mirror, they were interested in the reaction of the infant. What was the purpose of the red blush?
    The experimenters were interested in determining if the child understood that the child he/she saw in the mirror was himself/herself.
  46. Leary et al (1996) conducted a study in which subjects were either embarrassed or not (control), and if embarrassed, their ability to express their embarrassment was manipulated. Later, embarrassment was measured. For the embarrassing condition, subjects were allowed to wither express their emotion publicly, privately, or not at all. When embarrassment was measured at the end of the study, which of the following orders represents the degree of embarrassment experienced by each condition?
    Control = Public < Private < No express
  47. According to the Hart (1998) study discussed during the jealousy lecture in which children with no siblings watched their mother play with a book or a doll, at what age do we see hints of jealousy?
    Children as young as 6 months of age show signs of jealousy, and they appear to be able to discriminate btwn their mother playing with a book or a doll.
  48. Harris conducted a study, described in the article on ticklish laughter, in which participants believed they were being tickled by the experimenter, or by a machine-tickler. What best describes the findings?
    On average, subjects reported that they experienced more intense tickling fron the "experimenter" than from the "machine."
  49. Jealousy as a Specific Innate Module (JSIM) offers a unique view of the possible evolutionary risks faced by the different genders. According to JSIM, which of the following scenarios are men wired up to protect themselves from?
    Expending their resources on raising another man's child.
  50. When adults were asked to recall real incidents of infidelity, Harris found that _____ focused more on the emotional aspects of the incident relative to the sexual aspects.
    men and women of both sexual orientations
  51. Suppose that Jun Lee and Marc are participating in an experiment on what makes people happy. During the experiment, Jun Lee simply says, "More money." Marc states, "Close relationship with loved ones." According to your text, what questions were Jun Lee and Marc most likely asked and why?
    Jun Lee was asked what would make her happier because when people typically answer that question they refer to things that could make them happy.
  52. In the lecture on jealousy, Dr. Harris discussed evolutionary psychology and psychological mechanisms generally. Which of the following is NOT one of the points she made?
    a. Evolution could have created very general mechanisms like those proposed in social learning views.
    b. Pyschological mechanisms can fall anywhere on a continuum from very general to very specific.
    c. Very little is known for certain about the socio-cultural characteristics of our ancestors in the Pleistocene.
    d. All of the above were discussed in class.
    d. All of the above.
  53. Which of the following was NOT a possible definition of jealousy discussed in class?
    a. Jealousy could be a basic emotion
    b. Jealousy may be a compound emotion made up of fear, sadness, and anger
    c. Jealousy may be a label for a particular situation
    d. All of the above were discussed in class.
    d. All of the above
  54. In lecture and in one of her jealousy articles, Professor Harris offered some possible explanations for why the reasoning behind the Jealousy as a Specific Innate Module might be incorrect. Which of the following was one of her suggestions?
    a. Cuckoldry may not have occurred at high enough rates during the Pleistocene era to necessitate the evolution of a sexual jealousy module
    b. Men may not have provided enough resources to offspring in order to necessitate the evolution of different jealousy modules
    c. A more general jealousy mechanism may have solved the problems of both cuckoldry and resource loss (e.g. jealousy over flirting)
    d. All of the above were offered as possible explanations.
    d. All of the above
  55. Bobby is 7 yrs. old and two of his cousing are visiting for the holidays. His cousin Kendra is a baby and his cousin William is the same age as Bobby. According to the study by Masciuch & Kienapple that investigated the development of jealousy, what would we expect of Bobby if he saw his mother playing with each of his cousins?
    It is likely that Bobby would exhibit greater jealousy when his mother was playing with William than with Kendra
  56. In lecture, a study was discussed in which the happiness levels of lottery winners was compared to the happiness levels of individuals who had been in a major accident and became paraplegic or quadriplegic. What did this study find?
    Lottery winners enjoyed mundane pleasures less after winning the lottery, and were no happier than individuals in the control group.
  57. Happiness researchers have proposed a breakdwon of the factors that influence happiness. According to a diagram drawn in lecture, major life events (e.g. suffering a major accident), tend to account for about __ of variance among people on measures of happiness and life satisfaction, while genetics accounts for __ of the variance, and other factors account for __ of the variance.
    10%, 50%, 40%
  58. A video of an interview btwn. Prof. Harris and Alan Alda was shown in class. Which of the following best reflects Prof. Harris' view of the tickling phenomenon? (Also discussed in one of the articles)
    The laughter produced by tickling is most likely due to a type of complex reflex or fixed-action pattern (e.g. it is analogous to reflexes such as tapping the knee which leads to kicking behavior or to the startle reflex.)
  59. As discussed in lecture, Harris conducted a large-scale study investigating reasons that people may avoid seeking medical treatment. Which of the following was a finding of this study?
    The most common reason subjects failed to seek treatment over embarrassment was because they were afraid that the symptoms they were having might be caused by something trivial.
  60. Affect Infusion Model
    Theory that people use their emotional state as information in reaching a decision about some target
  61. beta-blocker
    drug that temporarily disables the stress hormone system responsible for some types of emotional arousal
  62. broaden-and-build model
    theory that positive emotions lead to no specific behavior, but to an increased readiness to explore new ideas and opportunities
  63. central route to persuasion
    persuasion based on facts and logic.
  64. depressive realism
    tendency for people who are mildly depressed or pessimistic, or at least neutral, to be more realistic than highly optimistic people, to perceive themselves and their situation accurately, and, therefore, to make careful and correct decisions.
  65. dysthymic
    Being mildly depressed or having a mixture of happy and depressed characteristics
  66. flashbulb memories
    recollections of highly emotional events that are vivid and detailed with a clear, almost photographic quality
  67. implicit attitude
    an attitude that influences behavior even when we cannot or do not verbalize it
  68. peripheral route to persuasion
    persuasion based on superficial factors such as frequent repetition of a slogan or endorsements by celebrities
  69. Barbara Fredrickson (2000)
    • proposed that positive emotions or affect should expand the focus of attention
    • -Broaden-and-Build model of positive emotions: positive emotions lead to no specific behavior, but to an increased readiness to explore new ideas and opportunities.
  70. Emotional information activates the _____ ( part of the brain ).
  71. "Distal"
    a term referring to stress as an indirect cause of illness
  72. Homeostasis
    refers to the tendency of many body variables to remain nearly constant over time
  73. Allostasis
    Refers to adaptive changes in the way the body regulates its levels of various chemicals & activities in the face of some threat or change in the environment.
  74. Allostatic Load
    The cost/damage from the body's prolonged response to stress.
  75. HPA axis
    • Composed of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and adrenal cortex.
    • Readies the body for vigorous action, similar to SNS, but it responds more slowly & lasts longer
  76. Cortisol
    • often described as a "stress hormone" because of its close relationship w/the allostatic response to stress.
    • Adrenal gland hormone that enhances metabolism & increases the availability of fuels in the body
  77. Resilience
    The ability to withstand stress or recover from it quickly.
  78. leukocytes
    • commonly known as white blood cells
    • A major part of the immune system.
    • The body has several types: B cells, T cells, & natural killer cells
  79. B cells
    • A type of white blood cell
    • -matures mostly in bone marrow
    • -Contribute to immunity mainly by producing antibodies.
  80. T cells
    -Mature in the thymus gland
  81. Natural killer cells
    • -Attack tumor cells & cells infected w/viruses
    • -Attack a wide variety of intruders.
  82. Cytokines
    • Small proteins secreted by leukocytes & other cells in response to infection.
    • -directly attack intruder cells
    • -facilitate the production & activity of T cells
    • -Communicate w/the brain
  83. Type A personality
    Marked by competitiveness, impatience, and hostility
  84. Antibody
    A Y-shaped protein that attaches specifically to one kind of antigen
  85. Antigen
    Proteins on the surface of the cells
  86. McEwen's definition of stress
    An event(s) that is interpreted as threatening to an individual & which elicits physiological & behavioral responses
  87. Selye's definition of stress
    The nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it
  88. Emotion regulation
    The strategies we use to control which emotions we have, when we have them, and how strongly we experience & express them.
  89. Coping
    Refers to the ways that people reduce negative emotion after a stressful event.
  90. the "id"
    fundamental drives & desires that humans cannot express in a civilized society
  91. ego defense mechanisms
    A series of psychological regulation strategies proposed by Freud that serves to resolve the tension btwn the id & the superego & keep disturbing wishes & desires hidden from consciousness.
  92. James Gross (2002)
    -The Process model of emotion regulation
  93. The process model of emotion regulation
    • James Gross
    • A model that organizes emotion regulation strategies according to their place in the emotion process itself
  94. Psychological Inoculation
    Dealing with a stressor by exposing yourself to milder versions of the stressful events.
  95. Cognitive Restructuring
    • Changing how one thinks about a major emotional issue or frequently occurring situation- a frequent goal in therapies for mood disorders such as depression & anxiety
    • -Prevent a negative emotion from being experienced at all, or at least reduce it
  96. Catharsis
    • Freud
    • the "release" of strong emotions by experiencing & expressing them fully
  97. Rumination
    Thinking continuously about a problem for a long time, focusing on negative aspects of the situation instead of possible situations.
  98. emotion-focused coping
    Reducing negative emotions after they have already started
  99. problem-focused coping
    Controlling the situation we are in, either by choosing to be in one situation rather than another or by changing the situation
  100. Plato
    • Dualist Approach
    • Ethical Soul
    • --emotion = negative/out of control
    • Earthly body
  101. Aristotle
    The Father of Functionalism
  102. Empirical
    verifiable/proveable by means of observation/experiment
  103. Viscera
    Internal organs of the body
  104. James-Lange Theory
    • Physical arousal is essential to emotion
    • Stimulus --> physical arousal/changes --> Perception of changes = EMOTION
    • Patterns of arousal
  105. CNS
    • Central Nervous System
    • --Brain & spinal cord
  106. PNS
    • Peripheral Nervous System
    • Autonomic & Somatic
  107. Autonomic Nervous system
    • Functions carried out automatically (Breathing, blood pressure)
    • Consists of Parasympathetic & Sympathetic
  108. Parasympathetic Nervous system
    • Vegestative states (Digestion, conservation of energy)
    • Constricts pupil
    • Increases saliva
    • slows heart rate
    • Increases digestive functions of intestine & stomach
    • Tears
    • Tends to exert influence on target organs individually
  109. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Dilates pupil
    • Decreases saliva
    • Increases heart rate
    • Decreases digestive functions of intestine & stomach
    • Sweat glands
    • Goose bumps
    • Tends to respond as a whole
    • Activates adrenal gland
    • Leads to increase in epinephrine
  110. Somatic Nervous system
    Carries signals to muscles
  111. Walter Cannon's Theory
    Stimulus --> Perception of stimulus --> CNS activation (thalamus) = Emotion; *feeling, * arousal, * behavior
  112. Maranon's study
    • Gave adrenaline shots to naive subjects
    • Results: 30% report some emotion (usually anxiety, sadness)
    • 70% report "as if" experiences
    • Conclusion: Adrenaline does not produce emotional experience
    • Supports Cannon's theory
  113. Sherrington's Experiments
    • Fear motivates dogs to avoid shock
    • Sympathectimized dogs still learn to do this
    • Supports Cannon's theory
  114. Shachter's Two-Factor Theory
    Stimulus ->Physiological Arousal -> Perception of arousal & labeling based on cognitive assesment of situation -> Emotional behavior & expression
  115. Shachter/Singer experiment
    • Gave some subjects shot of epinophrine & some a placebo
    • S-R of emotion
    • Conclusion:
    • Physiological arousal is necessary in order to experience emotion
  116. Centralist Model of Emotion
    Stimulus --> Perception of Stimulus --> Activation of Emotion Brain Centers
  117. Fridja's Theory
    Emotion, Action Tendency, Function
  118. Is arousal necessary?
    • YES: James-Lange, Shachter
    • NO: Modern Centralists, Cannon
  119. Are there patterns of arousal?
    • YES: James-Lange, Modern Centralists
    • NO: Shachter, Cannon
  120. Hohmann's Study (1966)
    • Wanted to find out if emotions are different after injury to spinal cord.
    • Yes
  121. Cobos (2002)
    Found that spinal cord injury does not decrease emotional experience
  122. Betablocker
    • Keeps blood pressure & heart rate & saliva down
    • --Does not seem to help w/animal studies, anxiety disorders, or exam nerves
  123. Bernadt Study
    • Subjects: Snake & spider phobics
    • Used betablocker & placebo to see how close they would come to them
    • No diff. btwn. 2 groups
  124. Stage Fright Studies
    James (1977)
    Beta blocker made musicians less nervous, performed better, judges also thought they performed better
  125. Harley (1983)
    • Public Speaking study
    • Taking beta blocker decreased anxiousness in S-R & observers'
    • Beta blocker decreases emotion
    • Appears to support Shachter & James Lange
    • **Harris had alternative explanation
  126. Harris' hypothesis on public speaking
    • Stage fright
    • Threat = physiological arousal
    • Beta blocker used during speeches will only work if speaker knows what they're talking about
  127. AX (1953)
    • Students think they're hooked up to shock machine
    • Fear & anger produced
    • 7 of 14 measures show difference btwn. anger & fear
  128. Schwartz (1981)
    • 32 people asked to conjure up emotions
    • Results: different emotions = different SNS patterns
    • Arousal NOT NECESSARY for emotion, but may INTENSIFY emotion