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What model did Bernard Miege develop?
The publishing model: publishing, flow, and written press.
What occurs in Miege's publishing model?
- 1. audiences purchase distinct works
- 2. thee media tend to be mainly financed through direct pay be audiences rather than advertisers
What occurs in Miege's written press?
similar to publishing except the media produce a series of commodities purchased regularly (newspapers/mags) their financed differently because they keep making the same thing
What occurs in Miege's flow model?
radio, television and new media produce a continuous flow requiring daily contact and the development of audience loyalty
What are Financial Interest and Syndication rules?
precent networks from producing much of their own programming. only in effect 70-95
If an industry is more consolidated...
then it has less competitors.
What are publicly held companies?
Those that anyone can buy stock in and consequently have a responsibility to stockholders to protect their investment.
what are privately held companies?
managed by a family and are not subject to the same disclosure rules.
What are the four categories of costs?
- marketing and distribution
What are overhead costs?
required to maintain the infrastructure of the industry. Could include salaries, real estate costs of studios,
What are planning costs?
- acquiring creative goods (prototypes to sell)
- often risky, time and money commitments
- include scripts
- freelance or salary base
what do production costs include?
all the salaries and costs involved in the actual making of a media product.
what do marketing and distribution costs include?
- having films printed and shipped to theaters and CDs made and shipped to stores.
- also cover promotion of texts
what is a loss leader?
- an activity or product of a media industry that is known to be unprofitable but that is advantageous to the industry in other ways.
- ex. video game hardware operators
what is deficit financing?
TV-industry process whereby production studios lost money in making series during the first few years-even if their show is a hit. While it loses money making the show, however, the studio (which licenses rather than sells the show to a network) maintains a possibility of other revenue streams through secondary markets.
What is cost plus?
system to finance TV programs in which a producer brings an idea to a network, and, if the network wants to develop the idea, the network pays the cost of production plus a fee or profit to the producer.
What is Hollywood accounting?
term used to describe a manner of accounting for costs of production (mainly through overhead charges) that reduces the net profits of a media text to a loss in order to avoid payment of royalties or percentages of net profits.
What are two versions of audience
- real: actual people who show up for film, subscribe to paper, by CD
- constructed: the audience imagined by creators and those throughout the industry while marketing media
when was single sponsorship a norm?
- in early days of radio.
- common practice to advance corporate image