INTD Lecture 2 (sept 8)

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  1. General Characteristics of pre colonial societies
    tradidional ways of living

    • - connection to the land
    • - own social/political systems,
    • - own geographical systems,
    • - small subsistence communities
    • - large states (diverse)
    • - lack leadership hierarchy
    • (ex. hill tribes in South East Asia)
  2. Colonialism

    give definition, state 2 ypes
    Definition: subjugation by physical and psychological force of one culture by another thru military conquest of territory and the stereotyping of the cultures – colonizer being superior to the colonized (placing one culture superior than another)

    Colonies of settlement - take the land from the people (ex: South America, South Africa)

    Colonies of rule - impose new inequalities to use their resources (India)
  3. Impacts of colonialism (6)
    -Displacement, marginalization, psychological impact (putting a minority into the power of another country

    -Indirect rule (European countries appointed certain class/caste of ppl to rule over the rest)

    -Extraction - labor, resources, cultural treasures - (to enrich the colonial powers, promote industrialization - forced ppl into cash cropping

    -Ideologies of justification ("white mans burden") - notions of racism and backwardsness - colonizers believed that native ppl were backwards - responsibility of the white man to lead colonized ppl - development emerged as the way to improve human kind

    -New disciples - shcool, segregation of native ppl - adapting ppl to colonialism and European ideas

    -resistances - national movements, political movements`
  4. Colonial division of labor - Extraction of labor and raw materials
    support european industrialization, manufactured goods shipped back in

    • (European colonizing countries produced raw materials that were not available in Europe (ex. sugar, coffee, silk, rubber, slaves) – used to support industrialization in Europe – shipped back cheap manufactured products - unequal ecological exchange (colonies now supply zone of labor and
    • raw material)
  5. Colonial Division of labor - Transformation of local agriculture systems (3 main points)
    - Traditional changed to European farming systems - cash crops, monoculture, plantation

    • Europeans considered native ways of agriculture wasting land and not modern – did not see
    • them as owning the land thus appropriating the use of the land for cash crops

    -New conception of property and land ownership - different rights to btw the farmer (private) and tribes

    -Social and ecological imacts - (land was replaced with specialized monoculture – ex. peanuts, coffee)

    – forced to do cash crops thru taxation – need to pay taxes with money therefore needed to participate in cash crops – ppl only grew for the market and no longer ate what they grew – BUT some also grew their own food (subsistence and lower wages since they have their own food) – women lost many rights since it was mostly men who went to cash farming

    Transformation/undermining of local industries – handicraft industries were
  6. Colonial division of labor - Transformation/undermining of local industries
    handicraft industries were undermined (the British put tariffs on textiles made in India BUT no tariffs on imported cotton from India – thus supporting the British industry of textiles and shipping back cheaper textiles to India thus undermining the Indian textile industry – undermined local structures and economies – Diaspora of ppl from colonized countries
  7. Impacts on Development (5)
    • -Diasporas (different ethnic groups spread around the world
    • -Global interdependence
    • -Inequality as "realtional" rather than "sequential"?
    • -Development as "destiny"
    • -Development to improve local living conditions as a way to keep control of colonies
    • - shift in view of development - not of catching up to the western states?
    • - development in europe WAS NOT a national process - about access to resources from other places
  8. Decolonization

    - Independence and antionalist movements

    - Thinkers and intellectuals

    - Anti-Colonial resistances
    - Maintain colonized countries by providing them with education, gave them a western perspective

    ex: haiti - use the arguments of French revolution to prevent colonialism

    Thinkers and intellectuals - Thinkers (some trained in Europe) who write about colonialism and freedom

    • Anti-colonial resistances
    • - Militarized

    • - Labor unrest (strikes – ppl refusing to
    • work – strike against poor working conditions)

    • - Idealist – Ghandi – promoting Hindu ideals
    • (village self-reliance) – Nehru – suppor independence but also modernity (realist)
  9. Decolonization and Development

    - Who emerged as the dominant power, what plan did they institute, effects of this?

    - political / economic institutions?

    - general atmosphere and dominant power at the time

    - fate of colonies, development - what was the problem with the way development developed haha
    - Post WWII -US is dominant power

    • -Marshall Plan - Reconstructed post-war Europe, establishment of “Breton Woods” Institutions – help create economic prosperity & weaken potentially aggressive states – the rise of Nazi Germany was a
    • response of economic disparity – thus the thought that economic prosperity (development) is needed to maintain peace

    -Also to stimulate markets for America, Truman’s speech

    Political institutions - UN (1945) (FAO, ect)

    Economic Institutions -

    (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) – provide loans to Europe to reconstruct itself after the war – but expanded to providing loan to post-colonial countries to become industrialized

    IMF – provide loans to restore confidence in countries if their currency falls

    • GATT (general agreement on tariffs and trade) – promote freer trade btw countries
    • - Now WTO (World Trade Agreement)

    - Era of Optimism, US is the global power- leading the flow of materials

    - World separated into 3 worlds, dismantling of the colonies.

    Development became something that was a national responsibility. Promotes improved well-being into new nations by injecting money to help them catch up to the West

    Problem – assumes a linear approach to development (following the footsteps of the West)
  10. Nation-States/Development States

    What is the locus of development?

    How can development be achieved
    • Locus of dev = nation state
    • Linked to Western culture – became associated with
    • modernization and industrialization – route of European industrialization seen as the way to modernity

    • Development as something that could be achieved thru industrialization
    • within nation-state

    Overlooks process of colonialization

    • Agriculture replaced by industry – development of each sector
    • interdependent

    National industrialization = modernization and is linear

    Import-substitution industrialization (ISI)

    Tried to reduce reliance on imports of raw material from other countries

    Government responsible for well-being of its citizens
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INTD Lecture 2 (sept 8)
Midterm 1 Review - INTD Lecture 2 (sept 8)
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