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  1. Give the location and fxn of stem cells
    • location: basale
    • fxn: give rise to kerationocytes
  2. give the location and fxn of keratinocytes:
    • location: all layers
    • fxn: synthesize keratin
  3. give the location and fxn of melanocytes:
    • location: basale
    • Fxn: systhesize brown pigment melanin, and keratinocytes 2. distruibute keratinoctyes
  4. give the location and fx of dendritic cells:
    • location: spinosum, grandulosum\
    • fxn: macrophages: secretes digestive enzymes and break it apart 2. protect against microbs, toxins, and pathogens
  5. give the location and fxn of tactile cells:
    • location : basale
    • fxn: receptors of touch
  6. within the epidermis the dividing cells are undergoing ____, and the older cells above are about 20- 30 layers thick
  7. list the sublayers of the epidermis from deep to superficial:
    stratum: basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucilum, corneum
  8. describe the structure and fxn of the basale:
    • structure: single cubiodal cells, contains keratinocytes, melanoctyes, tactile, and stem cells
    • fxn: resting like glue to the basement membrane
  9. describe the structure and fxn of the spinosum:
    • structure: multi layers of cuboidal cells, contains mostly keratinocytes and dendritic cells, thickest startum
    • fxn: cells are undergoing mitosis
  10. describe the structure and fxn of the grandulosum layer:
    structure: 3-5 layers of flat kerainocytes 2. cells contain dark granules
  11. describe the structure and fxn of the lucidum layer:
    • structure: pale, featureless, indisntic boundries, lacks hair
    • fxn: found only in thick skin, elledine protein
  12. describe the fxn and sturcture of the corneum layer:
    • structure: 20 - 30 layers of dead cells 2. flaking off
    • fxn: resistant to abrasion, penetration, and h20 loss
  13. desquamtion:
    remove skin cells, enzymes break apart desesomes.
  14. describe the structure and fxn of the dermis:
    • structure: connective tissue, mostly collegen, lots of fibers, blood vessels, glands, hair, nails, attachement of muscles.
    • fxn: support, secretion
  15. describe the structure and fxn of the papillary layer of the dermis:
    • structure: areolear tissue, passage of blood vessels, interfaces with the epidermal layer
    • fxn: difficult to pull apart from epidermal layer, so reisists slippage, fingerprints, provide sensitivty for lips
  16. describe the structure and fxn of the recticular layer of the dermis:
    • structure: irregular tissue
    • fxn: strength, support
  17. the two receptors of the dermis are the tactile, which are receptors of ____ and lammellar corpuscles which are receptors of ______ and vibrations
    • touch
    • deep pressure
  18. The importance of the vascular supply in the dermis is that the WBC act as macrophages to _____, while the nervous supply allows for the _____ of lips
    • bacteria
    • sensitivity
  19. describe the structure and fxn of the hypodermis:
    • structure: composed of adipose tissue (fat), blood vessels and nerves
    • FXN: holds skin together from underneath, insulation, shock absorbers, energy resiovor (glucuose)
  20. describe the source, fxn, and importance of melanin:
    • source: melanocyte cells
    • fxn:
    • importance:
  21. describe the source, fxn, importance of hemoglobin at melanin:
    • source: RBC,
    • Fxn: carries O2.
    • importance: red, pink pigment on the skin surface
  22. describe the source, importace, and fxn of cyanosis as a pigment
    • source: reduced O2
    • importance: blue shades
  23. describe the source, importantance and fxn of janudice as a pigment:
    • source: bile
    • imporantace: dark yellow skin color
  24. describe the source, importance and fxn of carotene as a pigment:
    • source:
    • importance: yellow color
  25. describe the general structure and fxn of hair:
    • structure: hard keratin, ridged in the bulb, root, shaft
    • location: everywhere except palms, soles
    • , toes, fingertips
    • fxn: protection, insulation, protect eyelides, ears, nose
  26. list the 3 types of hair, and its fxn:
    • lanugo: hair on a fetus, unpigmented
    • vellus: fine hair, 2/3 females have it, 10% males have it
    • terminal: on head, axillary, pubic, eyebrows, eyelashs
  27. describe the structure, location, and secretion of the sebaceous gland
    • structure:
    • location: opens to hair folicle
    • secretion: oily
  28. describe the structure, location, secretion of the sudoriferous glands:
    • meriocrin: pirsperation, location: ducts lead to the surface
    • apocrine: secretions: thick, milky, consumed by bacteria lead to BO
    • location: ducts lead to the hair folicle
    • active during puberty
  29. describe the structure, location, and secretion of the cerumminous glands:
    • structure
    • location: ear canal, hair
    • secretion: lubercaints, ear wax
  30. explain the difference between 1st, 2nd, and 3rd degree burns:
    • 1st degree is just on the epidermis
    • 2nd degree is on the epidermis and slighty the dermis, blisters
    • 3rd degree burns both the epidermis and dermis are destroyed, can regenerate
  31. name the 3 types of skin cancer and where in the integument they orginate:
    • 1. basale carcinoma - common, rarely metastasis
    • 2. squamous carcinoma: stratum spinosum
    • 3. maligname melanoma: from melanocytes, rare metastasis but fatal
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