ULFlexors.txt

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emm64
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105014
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ULFlexors.txt
Updated:
2011-10-03 18:42:04
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Upper Limb Flexors
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Upper Limb Flexors
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  1. pronator teres
    • attach: med. epicondyle of humerus (via common flexor tendon), coronoid process of ulna
    • mid radius (lat. surface)
    • nerve: median n.
    • action: pronates forearm
    • Anterior Compartment of the Forearm (superficial)
    • attaches to mid-radius
  2. flexor carpi radialis
    • attach:med. epicondyle of humerus (via common flexor tendon)
    • base of 2nd metacarpal
    • nerve: median n.
    • action: flexes & abducts (radial deviation) of hand
    • Anterior Compartment of the Forearm (superficial)
    • sends tendon to radial side of wrist
  3. palmaris longus
    • attach: med. epicondyle of humerus (via common flexor tendon)
    • palmar aponeurosis
    • nerve: median n.
    • action: aids in flexion of hand, tightens palmar aponeurosis
    • Anterior Compartment of the Forearm (superficial)
    • sends tendon to palmar aponeurosis
  4. flexor carpi ulnaris
    • attach: med. epicondyle of humerus ( via common flexor tendon), olecranon process, post. ulna
    • pisiform bone, hook of hamate, 5th metacarpal bone
    • nerve: ulnar n.
    • action: flexes & adducts (ulnar deviation) hand
    • Anterior Compartment of the Forearm (superficial)
    • sends tendon to the ulnar side of wrist
  5. flexor digitorum superficialis
    • attach: med. epicondyle of humerus (via common flexor tendon), ulnar collateral lig., coronoid
    • process of ulna, superior radius
    • middle phalanges of medial four digits
    • nerve: median n.
    • action: flexion of medial 4 phalanges at proximal IP joints
    • Anterior Compartment of the Forearm (Intermediate)
    • sends tendons to medial 4 digits
  6. flexor digitorum profundis
    • attach: proximal ulna & interosseus membrane
    • distal phalanges of medial four digits
    • nerve: medial � - ulnar nerve, lateral � - median n.
    • action: flexion of the medial 4 phalanges at distal IP joints
    • Anterior Compartment of the Forearm (deep)
    • immediately deep to FDS
  7. flexor pollicis longus
    • attach:radius & interosseus membrane
    • distal phalanx of thumb
    • nerve: median n. (anterior interosseus branch)
    • action:flexes thumb
    • Anterior Compartment of the Forearm (deep)
    • on radial side of forearm
  8. pronator quadratus
    • attach: distal ulna
    • distal radius
    • nerve:median n. (anterior interosseus branch)
    • action: pronates forearm
    • Anterior Compartment of the Forearm (deep)
    • deep to distal FDS and FPL; runs horizontally between radius & ulna
  9. biceps
    • attach: coracoid process of scapula (short head)
    • supraglenoid tubercle of scapula (long head)
    • radial tuberosity & forearm fascia
    • nerve:: musculocutaneous n.
    • action: flexion and supination of forearm; flexion of arm at shoulder
    • artery: brachial artery
  10. brachialis
    • attach:anterior humerus (distal �)
    • coronoid process of ulna & ulnar tuberosity
    • nerve: musculocutaneous n.
    • action: flexion of forearm
    • artery:brachial artery
    • deep to inferior � of biceps
  11. coracobrachialis
    • attach: coracoid process of scapula
    • medial humerus
    • nerve:musculocutaneous n.
    • action: flexes and adducts arm
    • deep to superior � of biceps
  12. Anterior (Flexor) Compartment of the Forearm
    • Superficial Layer Muscles:
    • 1.pronator teres (PT)
    • 2.flexor carpi radialis (FCR)
    • 3.palmaris longus (PL)
    • 4.flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU)
    • Intermediate Layer Muscles
    • 1.flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS)
    • Deep Layer Muscles
    • 1.flexor digitorum profundis (FDP)
    • 2.flexor pollicis longus (FPL)
    • 3.pronator quadratus (PQ)
  13. Arm Compartments and Contents
  14. ELBOW JOINTS AND LIGAMENTS
  15. Golfer’sElbow
    • A painful musculoskeletal condition that may follow repetitive use of the wrist flexor-pronator group as a result of activities such as golfing.
    • Pain is experienced on the medial side of the elbow. Repeated forceful movements strain the common
    • flexor tendon of these muscles and produce inflammation of the medial epicondyle.
  16. Anterior Compartment Innervation
    • The median nerve (and its anterior interosseus branch) and the ulnar nerve.
    • All of the anterior compartment muscles are innervated by the median nerve except for 1 and 1/2 muscles.
    • The flexor carpi ulnaris and ½ of the flexor digitorum profundis are innervated by the ulnar nerve.
  17. anteriorinterosseus artery
    • A branch of the common interosseus artery which divided into anterior & posterior branches.
    • The common interosseus artery is a branch of the ulnar artery
  18. brachial artery
    A continuation of the axillary artery and travels down the arm in the medial neurovascular bundle.




    • deep
    • brachial artery –
    • The brachial artery gives rise to the deep brachial artery (profunda
    • brachii a.) as it enters into the arm. The deep brachial artery
    • will travel into the posterior compartment of the arm and will
    • accompany the radial nerve in the radial groove of the humerus deep
    • to the triceps.
  19. Medialneurovascular bundle
    • Tuns down the medial aspect of the arm. This bundle contains the
    • brachial artery,
    • brachial veins,
    • basilic vein,
    • median nerve,
    • ulnar nerve,
    • and medial
    • antebrachial cutaenous nerve
  20. Elbow Bursae
    • bursae (synovial sacs).
    • olecranon bursa-deep to the triceps tendon is the subtendinous
    • subcutaneousolecranon bursa In the superficial fascia over the olecranon process of the ulna

    Clinical note: Inflammation of these bursae is called “bursitis”.
  21. elbow ligaments
    • The elbow joint ligaments – the elbow has a thin articular capsule. Anteriorly and posteriorly the joint is protected by muscles, but medially and laterally it is strengthened by 2 special ligaments:
    • (1) the radial (lateral) collateral ligament [a.k.a. lateral collateral ligament –LCL],
    • (2) the ulnar (medial) collateral ligament [a.k.a. medial collateral ligament – MCL].
    • The annular ligament helps protect the proximal radioulnar joint and allows the head of the radius to move beneath it while preventing it from being displaced.
  22. elbow joints
    • (1) the humeroulnar, (flex ext)
    • (2) the humeroradial, (flex ext)
    • (3) the radioulnar articulations. (supination/pronation)
    • B. Important structures of the ulna:
    • 1. trochlear notch
    • 2. coronoid process
    • 3. radial notch
    • 4. ulnar tuberosity
    • 5. body
    • 6. head
    • 7. styloid process
    • C. Important structures of the radius:
    • 1. head
    • 2. neck
    • 3. radial tuberosity
    • 4. styloid process
    • 5. body

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