Bones chapter 7

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Bones chapter 7
2011-09-28 21:21:49
Bone tissue

Bone information for Exam
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  1. Bone (osseous tissue)
    connective tissue with the matrix hardened by calcium phosphate and other minerals
  2. Osteoblasts
    bone forming cells
  3. Osteocytes
    formed osteoblasts, trapped in matrix
  4. osteoclasts
    break down, or dissolve bone
  5. The Matrix
    by dry weight, about one-third organic and two-thirds inorganic matter
  6. Rickets
    soft bones due to deficiency in calcium salts happen due to Vitamin D deficiency
  7. Red Marrow (Hemopoietic tissue)
    produces blood cels in is make up of many different tissues, and makes up an organ to itself
  8. Yellow Marrow
    Found in adults, red marrow turns into fatty yellow, it no longer produces blood
  9. Ossification (Osteogenesis)
    the formation of bone, continues throughout life with growth and remodeling
  10. Intramenbranous Ossification Stages
    • produce the flat bones of skull+clavicle,
    • 1. condensation of mesenchyme into soft sheet permeated with blood capillaries
    • 2. Deposition of osteoid tissue by osteoblasts on mesenchymal surface; entrapment of osteocytes; formation of periosteum
    • 3. Honeycomb of bony trabeculae formed by continued mineral deposition, creation of spongy bone
    • 4. Surface bone filled by bone deposition converting spongy bone into compact; Persistence of spongy bone in the middle layer.
  11. Endochondral Ossification Stages
    • Process in which bone develops from preexisting cartilage
    • 1. Formation of primary ossification center, bony collar and periosteum
    • 2.Vascular invasion, formation of primary marrow cavity and secondary marrow cavity in 1 epiphysis appears
    • 3. Child bone epiphyseal plate open
    • 4 Adult bone single marrow cavity, epiphysis plate closed
  12. Bone elongation
    • epiphyseal plate a region of transition from cartilage to bone, a growth zone
    • cartilage is being replaced by bone
  13. Metaphysis
    is the zone of transition facing the marrow cavity
  14. Zone of reserve cartilage
    typical hyaline cartilage farthest from marrow cavity, shows no sign of transforming into bone
  15. Zone of Proliferation
    chondrocytes multiply forming columns of flat lacunae
  16. Zone of hypertrophy
    chondrocyte enlargement, matrix between lacunae become very thin
  17. Zone of calcification
    mineral deposited in the matrix between columns of lacunae, temporary support for cartilage
  18. Zone of bone deposition
    chondrocytes die, horizontal columns fill with osteoblasts and blood vessels, osteoclasts dissolve the calcified cartilage
  19. Interstitial growth
    bones increase in length, can stop
  20. Appositional growth
    bones increase in width through life
  21. Bone remodeling
    occurs throughout life-10% per year, responds to stress