Zoology Lecture 2

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andreabyerly
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Zoology Lecture 2
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2011-09-28 19:35:26
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Zoology Lecture 2
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  1. Describe the major characteristics of the Kingdom Protista
    • eukaryotic, unicellular organisms
    • many have cell walls
    • autotrophic or heterotrophic
    • intracellular specialization (division of labor)
    • simple reflexes : avoidance of light and certain chemicals
    • found wherever life exists
    • asexual reproduction and conjugation : binary fission
  2. Classify the Protista taxa:
    • Phylum – Chlorophyta ex. Volvox
    • Phylum – Retortamonada
    • Class – Diplomonadea Ex. Giardia
    • Phylum – Axostylata
    • Class Parabasalea ex. Trichomonas
    • Phylum – Euglenoidea
    • Class – Euglenoidea Ex. Euglena
    • Class – Trypanosomatidea Ex. Trypanosoma
    • Phylum – Apicomplexa
    • Class – Coccidea Ex. Plasmodium
    • Phylum – Ciliophora Ex. Paramecium, Stentor, Vorticella
    • Phylum – Dinoflagellata Ex. Zooxanthella, Ceratium, Noctiluca
    • Amoebas
  3. Golgi Bodies:
    Parabasalea
  4. Axostyle:
    Parabasalea
  5. Pellicle:
    • Euglenoidea,
    • Trypanosomatidea, Ciliophora
  6. Contractile Vacuoles:
    Diplomonadea, Ciliophora, Amoebas
  7. Stigma:
    Euglenoidea
  8. Rhoptries:
    Coccidea
  9. Ectoplasm & Endoplasm:
    Ciliophora, Amoebas
  10. Cytopharynx:
    Ciliophora
  11. Pseudopodia:
    Amoebas
  12. Cilia:
    Ciliophora
  13. Test:
    Amoebas
  14. Macronucleus:
    Ciliophora
  15. Micronucleus:
    Ciliophora
  16. Trichocyst:
    Ciliophora
  17. Cytosome:
    Ciliophora
  18. Cytoproct:
    Ciliophora
  19. Single Flagella:
    Chlorophyta, Euglenoidea, Trypanosomatidea,
  20. Several Flaggela:
    Parabasalea, Diplomonadea
  21. Unicellular & Multicellular:
    Chlorophyta, Coccidea, Ciliophora
  22. Unicellular:
    Diplomonadea, Parabasalea , Euglenoidea, Trypanosomatidea, Dinoflagellata, Amoebas
  23. Autotrophic:
    Chlorophyta
  24. Autotrophic & Heterotrophic:
    Euglenoidea, Dinoflagellata
  25. Autotroph:
    produce their own food (plant like)
  26. Heterotroph:
    Do not produce their own food: 2 types
  27. Phagotroph (holozoic):
    eat the whole thing at once. (holozoic) animal like
  28. Osmotroph (saprozoic):
    digest food externally, then brings nutrients in using diffusion and osmosis (saprozoic) fungus like
  29. Phagosome:
    a food vacuole
  30. Contractile Vacuole:
    water excretion
  31. Advantages and Disanvantages of high surface area to volume ration
    • Advantage: a high surface area to volume ration (SA/V) means a cell can more easily maintain itself, can grow larger and become more complex.
    • Disadvantage: he danger of a high SA/V ratio is the substances dangerous to the cell can more easily get in
  32. Advantage and Disadvantage to asexual reproduction:
    • Advantage: enable the organism to use its energy resources most effectively on reproduction
    • Disadvantage: is the lack of genetic diversity, possibly leading to decreased fitness
  33. Advantage and Disadvantage to sexual reproduction:
    • Advantage: the genetic diversity it produces and the resulting increase in fitness
    • Disadvantage: the inefficient use of energy in seeking and competing for mates
  34. Binary Fission:
    one individual splits into two
  35. Budding:
    a tiny cell grows (buds) from the side of the parent
  36. Autogamy:
    individual self fertilizes
  37. Schizogony:
    one individual splits into many
  38. Syngamy:
    fertilization of a gamete by another
  39. Conjugation:
    • two individuals exchange genetic material.
    • no new individuals produced, but two are changed genetically
  40. Trypanosoma:
    Sleeping sickness
  41. Trichomonas:
    Vaginitis
  42. Plasmodium:
    Malaria
  43. Giardia:
    Beaver Fever
  44. Balantidium:
    Colon Perforations
  45. Amoeba:
    Dysentery
  46. Metazoa:
    multicellular animals
  47. Eumetazoa:
    metazoans with tissues
  48. Cell Aggregate:
    metazoans with no tissues
  49. Syncytical Ciliate Hypothesis:
    metazoans originated from ciliates
  50. Colonial Flagellate Hypothesis:
    metazoans originated from colonial flagellates Polyphyletic Origin
  51. Hypothesis:
    metazoans originated from several sources
  52. Describe the major characteristics of the Phylum Porifera
    • Eukaryotic metazoans
    • cell aggregates
    • no true tissues or organs
    • all aquatic, most marine
    • asymmetrical
    • body covered in pores
    • made up of several types of independent cells
    • skeleton of spicules, spongin and collagen
    • all are sessile
    • asexual and sexual reproduction
  53. Classify the Poriferan taxa:
    • Class Calcarea Ex. Scycon
    • Class Hexactinellida Ex. Euplectella
    • Class Demospongiae Ex. Spongilla, Cliona
  54. List the three body forms of poriferans:
    • Asconoid (leucosolenia)
    • Syconoid (sycon)
    • Leuconoid (euspongia)
  55. Calcarea:
    • calcium carbonate spicules
    • all asconoid forms
    • some syconoid
    • most are leuconoid
  56. Hexactinellida:
    • silicon based spicules
    • some are syconoid, other are leuconoid
  57. Demospongiae:
    • skeleton mainly spongin, some w/ silicon spicules
    • 95% of all extant sponges
    • all leuconoid
  58. Gemmule:
    internal buds formed during adverse conditions
  59. Monoecious:
    both sexes in one individual (hermaphroditic)
  60. Dioecious:
    separate sexes housed in different individuals
  61. Dipoblastic:
    having two germ layers from which tissues and structures arise
  62. Ectoderm:
    outer germ layer that gives rise to tissues and structures that cover the outside
  63. Endoderm:
    inner germ later that gives rise to tissues and structures that cover the inside
  64. Mesoglea:
    jelly-like substance found between that inner and outer layers
  65. Describe the major characteristics of the Phylum Cnidaria
    • eukaryotic eumetazoans
    • diploblastic
    • have true tissues, but no organs
    • all are marine and carnivores
    • radially symmetrical (no cephalization)
    • polymorphie: two forms (polyp & medusa)
    • cnidocytes: stinging cells
  66. Classify the Cniderian taxa:
    • Class Hydrozoa: Ex. Physalia, Obelia, Hydra, Gonionemus
    • Class Scyphozoa: Ex. Aurelia, Cassiopeia
    • Class Cubozoa: Ex. Carybdea
    • Class Anthozoa: Metridium, Gorgonia, Tubipora
  67. Class Hydrozoa:
    most are marine and colonial form
  68. Class Scyphozoa:
    • all are solitary
    • polyp stage is much reduced or absent
    • cup shaped
  69. Class Cubozoa:
    • all are solitary
    • polyp stage is much reduced
    • cube shaped
  70. Class Anthozoa:
    • Polyp form predominant, no medusa stage
    • some are solitary, others are colonial
    • many form zooxanthellae relationship with algae
    • most ecologically important due to reef building
  71. Describe the major characteristics of the Phylum Ctenophora
    • eukaryotic, eumetazoans
    • diploblastic
    • have true tissues, but no organs
    • all are marine and carnivores
    • biradially symmetrical (no cephalization)
  72. Classify the Ctenophora taxa:
    • Class Tentaculata: Pleurobrachia Cestum Coeloplana Mnemiopsis
    • Class Nuda: Beroe

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