Anatomy and Physiology 1

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nora_phllps
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Anatomy and Physiology 1
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2011-09-29 12:36:38
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Basic Chemistry
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Introduction to A&P
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  1. The study of the structure and relationship of body parts with emphasis on naming those parts.
    Anatomy
  2. Study of structures that are visible to the unaided eye
    Gross anatomy
  3. Study of all the anatomical structures in a particular region of the body
    Regional anatomy
  4. Study of all the anatomical structures in a particular region of the body.
    Regional anatomy
  5. Study of the superficial internal anatomical structure based on their appearance from overlying skin.
    Surface anatomy
  6. Study of structures with the aid of a microscope.
    Microscopic anatomy
  7. The study of cells
    Cytology
  8. The study of tissues.
    Histology
  9. Study of changes in anatomical structures over the lifespan.
    Developmental anatomy
  10. Study of the function of body parts with emphasis at the cellular and molecular level.
    Physiology
  11. fundamental (smallest units of all elements.
    Atoms
  12. What are common elements of the human body.
    Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
  13. atoms bonded together into stable units.
    Molecules
  14. smaller molecules
    Monomers
  15. Larger molecules.
    Polymers
  16. What are four organic polymers.
    Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
  17. Molecules that compose the body parts of cells "little organs".
    Organelle
  18. The smallest basic unit or building block of all living things. Structural and functioning unit.
    Cells
  19. Similar cells (both in structure and physiology) that function together.
    Tissue
  20. Strucutre of two or more tissues that perform a specific funtion for the body.
    Organ
  21. Organs that act together to perform particular body functions.
    Organ system
  22. All organ systems.
    Organism
  23. nutrition, (food getting) all living things must have a constant supply of food which is used for energy or as a source of raw material for growth and repair.
    Ingestion
  24. breaking down of ingested food to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
    Digestion
  25. molecules transported through cell membranes by either passive or active transport.
    Absorption
  26. ability to manufacture specific large molecules from smaller molecules and atoms.
    Assimilation
  27. ability to take small food molecules such as glucose molecule and chemically break these down releasing chemical energy.
    Respiration
  28. removing waste materials by diffusion through the cell membrane.
    Excretion
  29. includes all the activities promoted by the muscular system, such as propelling ourselves from one place to another.
    Movement
  30. process by which organisms produce substances such as vitamins, hormones and saliva which are necessary for the organism to carry on its activities.
    Secretion
  31. process by which organisms produce more organisms of the same type.
    Reproduction
  32. ability of living things to be aware and react to certain stimuli.
    Irritability
  33. process in which material that cannot be ingested but must be emitted from cell.
    Egestion
  34. Body systems working together to maintain the stable physiological balance.
    Homeostasis
  35. levels of organization or the heirachy of complexity within humans.
    Atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.
  36. the building blocks of all matter, pure substance that cannot be changed into a simpler substance by ordinary chemical treatment.
    Elements
  37. How many naturally occuring elements are there.
    88-92
  38. How many artifically produced elements are there.
    >20
  39. states that energy cannot be created or destroyed.
    The Law of the Conservation of Energy
  40. sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
    Mass number
  41. number of protons in the nucleus.
    Atomic number
  42. positive charge, in nucleus (1 atomic mass unit)
    Proton
  43. negative charge, in energy shell (1/1836 amu)
    Electron
  44. neutral, in nucleus (1amu)
    Neutron
  45. atom that has gained or lost an electron
    Ion
  46. salt, electrolytes and minerals.
    Synonyms to ion
  47. atom with same protons but different neutrons.
    Isotopes
  48. isotopes that give off energy in the form of radiation.
    Radioisotopes
  49. outermost energy shell of and atom.
    Valance shell
  50. a stable atom that is unreactive or inert has?
    A complete valance shell
  51. a unstable atom that will interact with other atoms has?
    An incomplete valance shell
  52. rule of eight, states that except for the first energy shell (stable with two electrons) atoms are stable with eight electrons in their valance shell.
    Octet rule
  53. completely transfers electrons from one to another enabling each atom to complete its valance shell.
    ionic bond
  54. positive charge ion.
    cation
  55. negative charge ion.
    Anion
  56. atoms share electrons.
    covalent bond
  57. special type of covalent bond, atoms share eletrons, are held more tightly to one of the atoms resulting in a slightly negative charge at one end and a positive charge at the other end.
    Polar covalent bond.
  58. weak chemical bond formed when a partially positive hydrogen atom in a molecule is attracted to a partially negative atom in another atom.
    hydrogen bond
  59. occur when chemical bonds are formed or broken.
    chemical reactions
  60. absorbs energy from the surrounding area, usually from heat or light. (feels cold)
    Endergonic
  61. releases energy from the surrounding area. (feels hot)
    Exergonic
  62. two or small molecules combine to form a larger one. EX: A+B --->AB
    Synthesis (combination reaction)
  63. metabolic reaction that consumes energy and constructs more complex molecules.
    Anabolic Process
  64. a large molecule breaks down into two or more smaller ones. EX: AB ---> A+B
    decomposition reaction
  65. metabolic reaction that released energy and breaks down complex molecules.
    Catabolic process
  66. two molecules exchange atoms or groups of atoms. EX: AB+CD ---->AD+CB
    Exchange or displacement reaction
  67. special exchange reactions in which electrons are exchanged between reactants.
    Oxidation-reduction reactions.
  68. A+B
    reactants
  69. --->
    yield (produce)
  70. AB
    Product
  71. factors that influence the rate of chemical reactions.
    Temperature, particle size, catalyst (enzymes), concentration.
  72. a pure substance made of two or more different elements in a fixed/definite proportion by mass.
    Compounds
  73. a compound that does not contain carbon.
    inorganic compound
  74. a compound that contains both carbon and hydrogen.
    organic compounds
  75. stable definable group of at least two atoms tightly held together by chemical bonds.
    Molecules.
  76. formed when two or more substances are blended together with no chemical change taking place.
    mixtures
  77. occurs when on substance is dissolved into another.
    solution
  78. the dissolved substance.
    solute
  79. the substance in which the solute is dissolved
    solvent
  80. many substances seperate into very large particles or groups of smaller particles when mixed with water. EX: gelatin
    Colloidal systems
  81. formed when a finely divided substance does not dissolve in a solvent yet it remains spread throughout the solvent for some time. EX: blood, starch in water, milk of magnesium
    Suspension (heterogeneous mixture)
  82. special compounds that alter the hydrogen ion concentrations of a solution.
    acids and bases
  83. substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution or a proton donor.
    acid
  84. substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution or a proton acceptor.
    base
  85. PH less than 7.0
    acidic
  86. PH greater than 7.0
    alkaline
  87. substances that minimize changes in the concentration of hydrogen positive and OH ions when acids and bases are introduced. (stablizes the PH of a substance)
    Buffers
  88. most abundant compound, forms 50-75% of the human body weight. has several unique properties that cause it to have the abilty to support life.
    Water
  89. ability to stick to itself.
    cohesive
  90. ability to stick to other like things.
    adhesive
  91. building up, put together by removing water. monomers bond together to form polymers.
    dehydration synthesis
  92. polymers break down to monomers, water going in
    hydrolysis
  93. carried by red blood cells and found in all body fluids; it is final electron acceptor in cellular respiration.
    Oxygen
  94. the source of the carbon that is found in organic compounds in living systems; it is also a by product of cellular respiration
    carbon dioxide
  95. various elements in the form of ions are available in inorganic compounds.
    minerals
  96. simplest organic compounds consists of only hydrogen and carbon
    hydrocarbons
  97. small clusters of atoms that determine many of the properties of an organic compound, they are bonded to a carbon chain
    functional groups
  98. smallest of the organic compounds. they are molecules.
    Monomers
  99. large complex molecules.
    Polymers
  100. made of C,H,O with a 2:1 ratio between H and O. root word sacchar, suffix ose, prefix glyco. mainly function as a source of energy.
    carbohydrates
  101. monomers of carbohydrates, simple sugars
    monosaccharides
  102. two glucose molecules bonded together
    disaccharide
  103. many monosaccharides bonded together to form large carbohydrates
    polysaccharides
  104. made of C,H, and O but with no ratio between H and O. Monomers are called fatty acids.
    Lipids
  105. formed when one of the fatty acids is replaced with a phosphate group
    Phospolipds
  106. characterized by having four linked carbon rings. EX: cholesterol, hormones
    Steroids
  107. made of C,H, and O and occasionally Nitrogen and sulfer. monomers are amino acids.
    Protiens
  108. bonds between amino acids and are covalent.
    Peptide bonds
  109. amino acids bond together to form a chain
    polypeptides
  110. the sequence of amino acids bonded in the polypetide
    primary structure
  111. 3 dimensional shape that results from hydrogen bonding between amino acids. can produce a spiral shape (a helix) or a folded plane that looks pleated (b-pleated sheet).
    secondary structure
  112. 3 dimesional shaping that result from interactions among r groups
    tertiary structure
  113. a protien that is assembled from two or more seperated peptide chains.
    quaternary structure
  114. complex 3 dimensional strucutres
    conformations
  115. destroying a proteins ability to work properly by changing its shape
    denaturation
  116. proteins that act as organic catalysts
    enzymes
  117. molecules on which enzymes react. (anything an enzymes works on)
    substrates
  118. enzyme working on only one subtrate or molecule
    enzyme substrate specificity
  119. organic cofactors which aid in certain reactions, many are vitamins
    coenzymes
  120. made of C,H,O,N,P and other elements. monomers are nucleotides.
    nucleic acids
  121. main functions of nucleotides are
    energy transfers (ATP) and information storage (DNA) and protein synthesis (RNA)
  122. nitrogen base, monosaccharide, phosphate group.
    3 subunits of nucleotide
  123. nucleotide that functions as the principle energy carrying molecule of all cells.
    ATP(adenosone triphosphate)
  124. most common and efficient way in which humans replenish ATP
    aerobic cellular rsepiration
  125. Deoxyribonucleic acid. carrier of inheritance for humans. nitrogen bases are C,G,A,T and monosaccharide is deoxyribose
    DNA
  126. Ribonucleic acid. carries out the genetic instructions of DNA, mainly, that of making protiens.
    RNA
  127. RNA differs in 3 ways from DNA
    • 1. sugar in the cucleotides is ribose
    • 2. thymine nucleotide does not occur, replaced by uracil.
    • 3. singlestranded and does not form a double helix
  128. bounds the cell and encloses the nucleus and cytoplasm. seperates intracellular metabolic events from external environment, also controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell body. it is selectively permeable.
    plasma (cell) membrane
  129. plama membrane is a double phospholipid membrane
    lipid bilayer
  130. polar, phospholipid molecule, (phosphate)
    hydrophilic head
  131. nonpolar, phospholipid molecule (fatty acid)
    hydrophobic tail
  132. developed in 1972, describes mosaic nature of these scattered proteins within a flexible matrix of phospholipid molecules.
    fluid mosaic model
  133. integral proteins that provide passageways through the membrane for certain hydrophobic (water soluable) substances such as polar and charged molecules.
    channel proteins
  134. (transport proteins) integral proteins that show specificity for molecules.
    carrier proteins
  135. a higher concentration of solutes
    hypertonic
  136. a lower concentration of solutes
    hypotonic
  137. an equal concentration of solutes
    isotonic
  138. normal saline, concentration of the body fluids (interstital fluids), 0.9%
    physiological saline
  139. net movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
    simple diffusion
  140. a passageway between two adjacent cells; formed by transmembrane proteins that allow an open for ions, molecules; etc. used in communication.
    Gap junctions
  141. area where plasma membranes of adjacent cells are fused forming an impermaeable to almost impermeable junction
    tight junction
  142. cell junction composed of thickened plasma membranes joined by filaments that anchor cells to one another
    desomsomes
  143. found in DNA, RNA, ATP and every cell membrane, bones
    phosphate group
  144. eat less
    to lose weight

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