a pure substance made of two or more different elements in a fixed/definite proportion by mass.
a compound that does not contain carbon.
a compound that contains both carbon and hydrogen.
stable definable group of at least two atoms tightly held together by chemical bonds.
formed when two or more substances are blended together with no chemical change taking place.
occurs when on substance is dissolved into another.
the dissolved substance.
the substance in which the solute is dissolved
many substances seperate into very large particles or groups of smaller particles when mixed with water. EX: gelatin
formed when a finely divided substance does not dissolve in a solvent yet it remains spread throughout the solvent for some time. EX: blood, starch in water, milk of magnesium
Suspension (heterogeneous mixture)
special compounds that alter the hydrogen ion concentrations of a solution.
acids and bases
substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution or a proton donor.
substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution or a proton acceptor.
PH less than 7.0
PH greater than 7.0
substances that minimize changes in the concentration of hydrogen positive and OH ions when acids and bases are introduced. (stablizes the PH of a substance)
most abundant compound, forms 50-75% of the human body weight. has several unique properties that cause it to have the abilty to support life.
ability to stick to itself.
ability to stick to other like things.
building up, put together by removing water. monomers bond together to form polymers.
polymers break down to monomers, water going in
carried by red blood cells and found in all body fluids; it is final electron acceptor in cellular respiration.
the source of the carbon that is found in organic compounds in living systems; it is also a by product of cellular respiration
various elements in the form of ions are available in inorganic compounds.
simplest organic compounds consists of only hydrogen and carbon
small clusters of atoms that determine many of the properties of an organic compound, they are bonded to a carbon chain
smallest of the organic compounds. they are molecules.
large complex molecules.
made of C,H,O with a 2:1 ratio between H and O. root word sacchar, suffix ose, prefix glyco. mainly function as a source of energy.
monomers of carbohydrates, simple sugars
two glucose molecules bonded together
many monosaccharides bonded together to form large carbohydrates
made of C,H, and O but with no ratio between H and O. Monomers are called fatty acids.
formed when one of the fatty acids is replaced with a phosphate group
characterized by having four linked carbon rings. EX: cholesterol, hormones
made of C,H, and O and occasionally Nitrogen and sulfer. monomers are amino acids.
bonds between amino acids and are covalent.
amino acids bond together to form a chain
the sequence of amino acids bonded in the polypetide
3 dimensional shape that results from hydrogen bonding between amino acids. can produce a spiral shape (a helix) or a folded plane that looks pleated (b-pleated sheet).
3 dimesional shaping that result from interactions among r groups
a protien that is assembled from two or more seperated peptide chains.
complex 3 dimensional strucutres
destroying a proteins ability to work properly by changing its shape
proteins that act as organic catalysts
molecules on which enzymes react. (anything an enzymes works on)
enzyme working on only one subtrate or molecule
enzyme substrate specificity
organic cofactors which aid in certain reactions, many are vitamins
made of C,H,O,N,P and other elements. monomers are nucleotides.
main functions of nucleotides are
energy transfers (ATP) and information storage (DNA) and protein synthesis (RNA)
nitrogen base, monosaccharide, phosphate group.
3 subunits of nucleotide
nucleotide that functions as the principle energy carrying molecule of all cells.
most common and efficient way in which humans replenish ATP
aerobic cellular rsepiration
Deoxyribonucleic acid. carrier of inheritance for humans. nitrogen bases are C,G,A,T and monosaccharide is deoxyribose
Ribonucleic acid. carries out the genetic instructions of DNA, mainly, that of making protiens.
RNA differs in 3 ways from DNA
1. sugar in the cucleotides is ribose
2. thymine nucleotide does not occur, replaced by uracil.
3. singlestranded and does not form a double helix
bounds the cell and encloses the nucleus and cytoplasm. seperates intracellular metabolic events from external environment, also controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell body. it is selectively permeable.
plasma (cell) membrane
plama membrane is a double phospholipid membrane
polar, phospholipid molecule, (phosphate)
nonpolar, phospholipid molecule (fatty acid)
developed in 1972, describes mosaic nature of these scattered proteins within a flexible matrix of phospholipid molecules.
fluid mosaic model
integral proteins that provide passageways through the membrane for certain hydrophobic (water soluable) substances such as polar and charged molecules.
(transport proteins) integral proteins that show specificity for molecules.
a higher concentration of solutes
a lower concentration of solutes
an equal concentration of solutes
normal saline, concentration of the body fluids (interstital fluids), 0.9%
net movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
a passageway between two adjacent cells; formed by transmembrane proteins that allow an open for ions, molecules; etc. used in communication.
area where plasma membranes of adjacent cells are fused forming an impermaeable to almost impermeable junction
cell junction composed of thickened plasma membranes joined by filaments that anchor cells to one another
found in DNA, RNA, ATP and every cell membrane, bones