NUTR 550 exam 1

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mmb65
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105057
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NUTR 550 exam 1
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2011-09-28 21:49:12
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NUTR550
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exam 1
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  1. Food science
    • is the discipline in which engineering,
    • biological, and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the
    • causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing and the
    • improvement of foods for the consuming public
  2. food technology
    • A
    • systematic investigation into a variety of foods' properties and compositions
  3. 5 basic tastes
    • 1. salty
    • 2. bitter
    • 3. sweet
    • 4. sour
    • 5. umami
  4. Threshold level
      • Level at which a taste can be
      • noted
      • Varies between individuals
  5. sub threshold level
    • Various taste compounds can
    • still influence overall perception of taste
  6. Food characteristics (4)
    • 1. appearance
    • 2. aroma
    • 3. flavor
    • 4. texture
  7. Types of tests: Single
    sample
    • Useful in defining the
    • direction in which the project should move
  8. Types of test: difference testing
    • given 3 samples have to determining which
    • is the same as the control, or which is different
  9. Triangle test
    • 3 samples presented and judge must identify
    • the odd sample
  10. rank order test
    • Samples are ranked in order
    • of intensity of the characteristic being measured
  11. Descriptive testing
    • - Usually employs a scorecard
    • with precise word descriptions that structure the form of responses
    • - Each characteristic to be
    • evaluated is described over a range- the judge selects the specific
    • description matching the sample for each item
  12. Affective testing
    • - Consumer panels often are
    • used to indicate preferences of one sample over another
    • - Hedonic rating scales can be
    • used to measure the degree of pleasure with each sample
  13. Natural
    • the original food ingredients have been used
    • and artificial/chemical additives have not
  14. organic
    • food is produced without growth hormones,
    • antibiotics, or petroleum or sewage sludge-based fertilizers
  15. Functional foods
    • -are foods and food products
    • that provide possible health benefits (Beyond just the nutrients
    • they contain)
  16. Nutraceuticals
    • is a term that may be used to cover
    • supplements and medicinal herbs
  17. Phytochemicals
    • - are compounds in foods wit
    • biological activity that may promote health benefits
    • - Beyond the effects of
    • vitamins and minerals
  18. Physical assessment
    • 1. volume
    • 2. density
    • 3. viscosity
  19. volume
    • measure
    • of 3D space often used with liquids
  20. density
    • concentration
    • of matter measured by mass/volume
  21. viscosity
    • resistance
    • of a fluid of free flow - key in term in rheology
  22. moisture content
    • % MC = [(initial wt- dry wt)/Initial weight] x 100
  23. volumeter
    • volume
    • measured by displacement (ex. Displacement of flax seeds)
  24. rheology
    • Branch of physics that
    • studies the flow and deformation of matter
  25. what is viscosity measured by?
    Brookfield viscometer
  26. consistometer
    slanted metal thing where liquid is measured as it flows down ramp
  27. Newtonian
    • flow
    • in proportion to shear
  28. Tixtropic
    • flow
    • and reform
  29. plastic
    overcome yield before flow
  30. Percent sag
    % sag = [(depth in - depth out of container) / depth in container] x 100
  31. chemical assesment: sweetness
    BRIX
  32. chemical assesment: Tartness
    pH meter
  33. chemical methods: acid concentration
    pH meter
  34. chemical methods: sugar concentration
    refractometer
  35. chemical methods: salt concentration
    flame photometer
  36. chemical methods: color and/or concentration
    spectrophotometer
  37. chemical methods: flavor
    GC/MS
  38. Heat of fusion
    • - L -> solid
    • Endothermic
    • 80 cal/g
  39. Heat of vaporization
    • L --> gas
    • Exothermic
    • 540 cal/g
  40. Boiling
    point of a liquid
    • the
    • temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure
  41. Factors influence boiling point
    • +0.52 per M
  42. factors influence freezing point





    +0.52 per M




  43. Bound water
    • H2O
    • bound to other substances and no longer exhibiting flow properties and solvent
    • availability
  44. water activity
    aw= (vapor pressure of water in sample)/(vapor pressure of pure water)
  45. crystalline
    ordered
  46. amorphous
    random
  47. vapor pressure
    • pressure
    • exerted as molecules of a compound attempt to go L to G
  48. evaporation
    • escape
    • of L molecules to atmosphere
  49. mayo is
    o/w
  50. butter is
    w/o
  51. foam
    gas in a liquid, liquid may become solid
  52. Stabilization issues: protein foam
    room temperature
  53. Stabilization issues: fat foam
    cold
  54. Nutritive sweeteners
    • 1. sugars
    • 2. sugar alcohols
  55. Nonnutritive sweeteners
    • 1. aspartame
    • 2. saccharine
    • 3. acesulfame K+
    • 4. spenda
    • 5. stevia

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