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What is LOAD
force acting on structure

Force =
mass x acceleration: Newtown's Second Law of Motion

Static/Gravity loads, applied slowly
 1. Live loads (people, furniture, movable equipment, snow)
 2. Dead loads (building structure, immovable equipment)


Dynamic and lateral loads, applied suddenly
Wind, seismic, impact loads

Beams, loads are typically limited by bending stress and deflection

What is STRESS
load or force per unit area

External Stresses
 Tire pressure, p.s.i (pounds per square inch)
 Residential floor systems are required to support 40 p.s.f. (pounds per square foot)

Internal Stresses
Tensile, Compressive, Shear, Bending Stress

Tensile Stresses
 "pulling" force acting through the axis of the structure.
 include: chain, cable, rod and rope

Compressive stresses
 "pushing" force acting through the axis of the structure
 include: columns and bearing walls

Shearing stresses
 "slipping" force acting through the structure
 Vertical shear occurs perpendicular to the major axis of the structure (scissors work by applying shear perpendicular to the paper surface)
 Horizontal shear occurs parallel to the major axis of the structure (loading a beam introduces horizontal shear)

Bending Stresses
 Coupled "pulling" and "pushing" forces acting parallel the axis of the structure.
 Gravity loads on a simply supported beam causes tensile stresses in the bottom of the beam and compressive stresses at the top of the beam
 Maximum allowable loads are typically limited by bending stress

