Baker's Exam #1; Objectives 1-10

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kmaher
ID:
105085
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Baker's Exam #1; Objectives 1-10
Updated:
2011-09-29 00:30:10
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Dental Therapeutics
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Baker's Exam #1; Objectives 1-10
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  1. List the bacteriostatic antibiotics used in clinical dentistry
    • Tetracylines
    • Sulfonamides
    • Macrolides
    • Clindamycin
  2. List the bactericidal antibiotics used in clinical dentistry
    • Penicillin
    • Cephalosporins
    • Metronidazole
    • Fluorquinolones
    • Vancomycin
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Clindamycin (at high dose)
  3. List the narrow spectrum antibiotics
    • Penicillin
    • Erythromycin
    • Clindamycin
    • Metronidazole
  4. List the extended spectrum antibiotics
    • Amoxicillin
    • Cephalosporins
    • Fluoroquinolones
  5. List the broad spectrum antibiotics
    • Tetracyclines
    • Sulfonamides
  6. Explain the advantages of narrow spectrum agents over extended and broad spectrum agents.
    • The more narrow the spectrum of antibiotic the less gut flora wipeout and thus the more likely pts. will NOT stop taking the medication.
    • Narrow spectrum antibiotics also have better specificity leading to better, more efficacious results.
  7. List the FDA pregnancy category for pen VK
    B
  8. List the FDA pregnancy category for cefuroxime
    B
  9. List the FDA pregnancy category for Erythromycin
    B
  10. List the FDA pregnancy category for Clarithromycin
    C
  11. List the FDA pregnancy category for Clindamycin
    B
  12. List the FDA pregnancy category for Metronidazole
    B
  13. List the FDA pregnancy category for Levofloxacin
    C
  14. Describe the typical odontogenic infection in terms of progression.
    • - The typical odontogenic infection is composed of a mix of aerobic and anaerobic species.
    • - The timeline of infection may show: AEROBESMIXEDANAEROBES
  15. Describe the typical odontogenic infection in terms of common pathogens
    • AEROBES: Strep- viridens (common), B-Hemolytic(unusual), Staph (rare)
    • ANAEROBES: [gram +] Peptostreptococcus (common), [gram -] Porphyromonas (rare), Prevotella (very common), Fusobacterium (common), Bacteroides fragilis (rare)
  16. List advantages of amoxicillin vs. penicillin VK
    • More complete absorption
    • Longer duration of activity
    • TID admin
  17. List disadvantages of amoxicillin vs. penicillin VK
    • Broader spectrum
    • Poor anaerobe activity
    • More side effects/less efficacy
  18. List adv/disadvantages of amoxicillin vs. Amox/Clauvulanic acid (Augmentin)
    Augmentin causes moderate to severe diarrhea
  19. List rates of penicillin allergy and cross sensitivity with cephalosporins
    • 3-10% of pop. Is allergic to penicillins (IV/IM > PO route)
    • True anaphylactic rxns to penicillins are
    • 1/7,000 - 1/25,000 instances of PCN use
    • Cross-reactivity to cephalosporins occurs in 3-5% of patients
    • 1st generation cephalosporins have highest rate of cross-sensitivity b/c the most closely resemble PCN (also are poor drugs to fight anaerobes)
  20. What are the oral penicillins that are classified as natural?
    • Penicillin G
    • Penicillin VK
  21. What are the oral penicillins that are classified as penicillinase-resistant?
    • Dicloxacillin
    • Nafcillin
  22. What are the oral penicillins that are classified as aminopenicillins?
    • Amoxicillin
    • Amox/potassium
    • Clavulanate (Augmentin)
    • Ampicillin
  23. List the 1st generation cephalosporins. (Best gram + coverage)
    • Cephalexin
    • Cefadroxil
    • Cephradine
  24. List the 2nd generation cephalosporins. (Best anaerobe coverage)
    • Cefaclor
    • Cefuroxime
    • Cefprozil
    • Loracarbef
  25. List the 3rd generation cephalosporins. (oral agent provide NO oral anaerobe activity)
    • Cefdinir
    • Cefixime
    • Cefpodoxime
    • Ceftibuten
    • Cefditoren
  26. List six antibiotic therapy guidelines for treating odontogenic infections.
    • Take pt drug, medical, and allergy history often
    • Target causative organism
    • Counsil pt about endpoints
    • Evaluate clinical response at 48hrs
    • *Start with narrow spectrum abx
    • *Monitor proactively
  27. List disease and/or drug therapy characteristics of the compromised host
    Must use bactericidal agents

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