physical science chapter 2

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  1. *Minerals
    • characteristics: -Naturally occurring
    • - solid substance
    • - orderly crystalline structure
    • - well-defined chemical composition
    • -generally inorganic
  2. *Naturally occuring
    formed by natural geologic processes. Not synthetic
  3. *Solid substance
    minerals need to be solid within temperature ranges normally experienced at earths surfaces.
  4. *Orderly crystalline structure
    means their atoms are arranged in a orderly repetitive manner.
  5. *Well-defined chemical composition
    means that chemical composition of a mineral may vary, but has to be wihin a certain limit or well defined limit.
  6. *Generally inorganic
    inorganic crystalline solids, such as table salt is found naturally on ground.
  7. Valence electrons
    are electrons located on the outermost shell. Interact with other atoms to form chemical bonds
  8. Atomic number
    number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, it determines its chemical nature
  9. Chemical compounds
    variety of elements joined together to form something
  10. Octet rule
    Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by 8 valence electrons
  11. Chemical bond
    is the transfer or sharing of electrons that allows atoms to attain a full valence shell of electrons.

    three types: Ionic, covalent, hydro
  12. Ionic bond
    is when valence electrons are transferred between the elements to form ions
  13. Covalent bond
    is when electrons SHARE between the atoms
  14. IONs
    Positive ions: Cations

    Negative Ions: Anions

    • Atoms that lose electrons are Cations
    • Atoms that gain electrons are Anions
  15. Ionic compounds
    oppositely charges ions are strongly attracted to one another.
  16. Mass number
    is total number of protons and neutrons in a atom
  17. Isotopes
    are atoms with same protons but different amount of neutrons

    carbon 12, carbon 13, carbon 14
  18. Physical properties of minerals: Optical properties
    Luster, the ability to trasnmit light, color, and streak are most frequnetly used for mineral ID
  19. #Luster
    appearance or quality of light refelcted from the surface of a mineral

    Metallic or nonmetallic
  20. #Ability to trasnmit light
    Opaque: no light is permitted

    Translucent: light but no image

    Transparent: both light and image are permitted
  21. Color
    it can be misleading in identifying minerals. There are numerous of rocks that have different colors.
  22. Streak
    is when a rock or mineral is rubbed on a streak plate, leaving color powdered mineral behind.

    helps distinguish between metallic luster or nonmetallic luster
  23. Tenacity
    describes mienrals toughness, or its resistance to breaking or deforming.
  24. Hardness
    measure of the resistance of a mineral to abrasion or scratching.
  25. Mohs scale
    10 objects. diamond is the hardest.
  26. Cleavage
    tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weak bonding

    not all minerals have cleavage
  27. Fracture
    when some minerals fracture they create uneven surfaces or smoothed curves.
  28. Specific gravity
    it is unitless representing the ratio of a mineral weight to the weight of an equal volume of water
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physical science chapter 2
chapter 2
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