BIOL380 WEEK 3

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Geo
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105110
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BIOL380 WEEK 3
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2011-09-29 00:16:00
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BIOL380 WEEK 3
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  1. Define Prions.
    Prions are proteins with altered secondary, tertiary, and quarternary structures.
  2. Other than being misfolded, what else is required for a misfolded protein to become a Prion?
    If the misfolded protein causes other proteins to misfold, then that misfolded protein is a Prion.
  3. Even though we have a natural mechanism to degrade Prions, what can Prions eventually do to the cell?
    Prions can make the cell go through lysis after over-filling the cell with Prions.
  4. What is an example of a Prion-based disease?
    Mad Cow Disease
  5. Define Resolution.
    It's the ability to distinguish to very closely spaced objects.
  6. What are three things that affect Resolution?
    • Numerical Aperture
    • Refractive Index
    • Wavelength of Light
  7. Define Refractive Index.
    The degree to which light is bent when passing through a medium.
  8. What types of mediums are used with Microscopes?
    Air & Oil
  9. Which wavelength of visible light has the longest wavelength and which has the shortest wavelength?
    • Red has the longest.
    • Violet has the shortest.
  10. Which increases Resolution? Using shorter or longer wavelengths?
    Shorter
  11. What are the 2 main types of Microscopes?
    • Light Microscopes
    • Electron Microscopes
  12. What are the 5 types of Light Microscopes and which is the only one that doesn't have a max. magnification of 1000X?
    • Dissecting - 30-40X
    • Compound
    • Confocoal
    • Differential Interference
    • Fluorescent
  13. Which of the 5 Light Microscopes have a max resolution of 0.2 micrometers?
    • Compound
    • Confocal
    • Differential Interference
    • Fluorescent
  14. Which of the microscopes has the ability to see a sharp image of a particular layer/plane (Focal Point) in a 3D specimen?
    Confocal Microscope
  15. What is the disadvantage of a Compound Microscope?
    Blurry areas whie focusing
  16. What is the disadvantage of a Confocal Microscope?
    If only 1 run is made, information may be lost becase you see only one layer.
  17. Which Light Microscope are made to emphasize structures with NO stain?
    Differential Interference Microscopes
  18. What are the two types of Differential Interference (DI) Microscopes?
    • DI Contrast
    • Phase Contrast
  19. What else is a DI Contrast Microscope known as?
    Nomarski
  20. What is the main difference between a DI Contrast and Phase Contrast Microscope?
    Boundaries are clear with DI Contrast and you get a Halo Effect around your Focal Point when using Phase Contrast.
  21. How do Electron Microscopes work?
    They use electrons to form images.
  22. What is the maximum magnification and resolution of Electron Microscopes?
    • ~500,000X
    • 2nm
  23. What are the 3 disadvantages of an Electron Microscope?
    • Can NOT see color.
    • Can NOT use living specimens.
    • Sometimes can be very expensive.
  24. What are the 2 types of Electron Microscopes?
    • Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM)
    • Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM)
  25. Define Differential Centrifugation.
    Using spinning in a centrifuge to separate cellular components based on weight in a sample; heavier things at the bottom and lighter things at the top.
  26. What is the purpose of Freeze Fracturing ?
    Use Freeze Fracturing in order to access internal cellular components by freezing rapidly and breaking phospholipid bilayer in half in order to study things within that layer.
  27. What is the disadvantage of Freeze Fracturing?
    Specimen must be frozen quickly or else slow freezing will damage the specimen.
  28. What does Hybridization mean?
    Joining together
  29. What is the function of Hybridization?
    To locate nucleic acids
  30. How does Hybridization work?
    Use a Probe that is complementary to DNA/RNA Strand of Interest. Can be used with Chromosomes. Make sure a TAG is used on a Probe. (i.e. Fluorescent Tag)
  31. What is the main function of Immunocytochemistry?
    To detect proteins
  32. What is the main function of Electrophoresis?
    To separate molecules based on size and charge
  33. What three types of Blots use Electrophoresis and what do they detect?
    • Southern - DNA
    • Western - Proteins
    • Northern - RNA

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