Bio Psyc Exam 2

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Bio Psyc Exam 2
2011-10-03 22:33:13
Bio Psyc Exam

Bio Psyc Exam 2
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  1. reflex arc
    • Circuit from sensory neuron to muscle response.
    • In reflex arc there are more nerve sand therefor more synapses to travel across.
  2. temporal summation
    Repeated stimuli within a brief time have a cumulative effect
  3. postsynaptic neuron
    cell that receives the message.
  4. excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
    • graded depolarization
    • occurs when sodium ions enter the cell.
    • if it doesn’t cause an action potential, it decays quickly.
  5. spatial summation (summation over space)
    • synatptic inputs from separate locations combine their effects on a neuron.
    • neither pinch alone produces a reflex but both together do.
  6. inhibitory postsynaptic potential IPSP
    • when synaptic input selectively opens the gates for potassium ions to leave the cell.
    • temporary hyperpolarization of a membrane.
    • decreases probability of an action potential.
  7. spontaneous firing rate
    periodic production of action potentials even without synaptic input.
  8. neurotransmitters
    • chemicals that affect a second neuron.
    • no single neuron uses all transmitters.
    • one transmitter interacts with several receptors.
  9. nitric oxide
    • gas released by many small local neurons considered a neurotransmitter.
    • poisonous in large quantities and hard to create in a lab.
  10. exocytosis
    release of neurotransmitter in burst from the presynaptic neuron in to the synaptic cleft.
  11. ionotropic effects
    • very fast effect on the postsynaptic neuron which opens channels for some type of ion.
    • 10ms and very localized effects.
  12. metabotropic effects
    • sequence of metabolic reactions that are slower and longer lasting than ionotropic effects.
    • emerge 30ms or more after release of transmitter and can last seconds to days.
    • widespread effects.
  13. neuromodulators
    • neuropeptides that have several properties that set them apart from other transmitters.
    • released by cell bodies, sides of axons, and dendrites.
    • requires repeated stimulation.
    • diffuse widely and use metabotripic receptors.
  14. hormone
    • chemical secreted usu. from a gland but also by other kinds of cells conveyed in blood to other organs.
    • conveys a message from the sender to receiver.
    • long lasting changes in multiple parts of body.
    • many chemicals are hormones and neurotransmitters.
  15. endocrine glands
    glands that are hormone producing.
  16. reuptake
    • presynaptic neuron takes up most of the released neurotransmitter molecules intact and reuses them.
    • occurs through special membrane proteins called transporters.
  17. autoreceptors
    • receptors that detect the amount of transmitter released and inhibit further synthesizing and release after it reaches a certain level.
    • located on the presynaptic terminal to tell it to stop making more.
  18. neuroanatomy
    anatomy of the nervous system.
  19. central nervous system
    brain and spinal cord (segmented)
  20. peripheral nervous system
    • nerves outside brain and spinal cord
    • somatic nervous system
    • autonomic nervous system
  21. somatic nervous system
    axons conveying messages from sense organs (skin, eyes) to CNS and from CNS to muscles.
  22. autonomic nervous system
    controls heart, intestines, other organs.
  23. Bell-Magendie law
    entering dorsal roots (axon bundles) carry sensory information and exiting ventral roots carry motor information.
  24. dorsal root ganglia
    cell bodies of sensory neurons in a cluster of neurons outside spinal cord
  25. gray matter
    • densely packed with cell bodies and dendrites
    • H shaped center of spinal cord
  26. white matter
    • mostly mylinated axons; surrounds gray matter in spinal cord.
    • sympathetic nervous system
    • prepares the organs for vigorous activity, excites
  27. parasympathetic nervous system
    • facilitates vegetative nonemergency responses, relaxes.
    • increases digestive activity
  28. hindbrain
    medulla, pons, cerebellum.
  29. medulla
    controls vital reflexes, breathing, heart rate, throwing up, salivation, coughing and sneezing.
  30. pons
    “bridge”; many axons in the pons cross from one side of the brain to the other.
  31. reticular formation
    • within the medulla and pons
    • controls motor areas of spinal cord;
    • increases arousal and attention in the cerebral cortex.
  32. raphe system
    modifies the brain’s readiness to respond to stimuli
  33. cerebellum
    • control of movement/ balance/ coordination;
    • attention to stimuli/ timing.
  34. tectum
    roof of the midbrain
  35. superior colliculus
    • within the midbrain
    • sensory processing - vision mainly
  36. inferior colliculus
    • part of midbrain
    • sensory processing – mainly hearing
  37. tegmentum
    • part of midbrain
    • intermediate level
  38. limbic system
    • border around brainstem;
    • motivations and emotions: eating, drinking, sexual activity, anxiety, aggression.
  39. thalamus
    • in center of forebrain
    • most sensory info goes to forebrain
  40. hypothalamus
    • conveys messages to the pituitary gland;
    • damage leads to abnormalities in motivated behaviors.
  41. pituitary gland
    synthesizes and releases hormones into the bloodstream.
  42. basal ganglia
    connections to other parts of brain
  43. hippocampus
    critical for storing certain kinds of memories.
  44. ventricles
    four fluid filled cavities within the brain.
  45. cerebrospinal fluid
    fills the ventricles and canal of the spinal cord, and thin spaces b/t between the brain and thin meninges.
  46. meninges
    • membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
    • migraine headaches = swelling of blood vessels in meninges.
  47. cerebral cortex
    • gray matter = cells of the cortex
    • white matter = axons extending inward
  48. anterior commissure
    ventral to the corpus callosum
  49. columns
    cell perpendicular to laminae of cortex.
  50. laminae
    layers of the cortex.
  51. occipital lobe
  52. temporal lobe
  53. parietal lobe
    monitors all info about eye, head, and body positions and passes it to brain areas that control movement.
  54. frontal lobe
    primary motor cortex and prefrontal cortex
  55. central sulcus
    very deep coronal groove in brain
  56. postcentral gyrus
    main target for touch sensations and info from muscle-stretch and joint receptors.
  57. prefrontal cortex
    not primary target for any sensory system but receives info from all systems in diff parts of the cortex.
  58. binding
    • occurs if you perceive two sensations as happening at the same time in the same place.
    • e.g. see mouth moving on tv, hear sound coming out of tv at same time, match them by binding.
  59. precentral gyrus
    • part of frontal lobe
    • control of fine movements (one finger at a time)
  60. T.R. Elliot
    Effects of adrenaline on organs same effects as nervous system.
  61. Otto Loewi
    Demonstrates for first time chemical nature of nerve transmission between neurons.
  62. Synaptic Transmission
    • Production of neurotransmitter
    • Production of smaller neurotransmitters
    • Transport of neurotransmitter
    • Action potential causes calcium to enter releasing neurotransmitter
    • Neurotransmitter binds to receptor
    • Separation from receptors
    • Reuptake of neurotransmitter by transporter protein
    • Retrograde transmitter – transmitter released by the postsynaptic membrane and acts on the presynaptic terminal
  63. Two locations of synthesis of neurotransmitters
    • Presynaptic terminal, close to point of release; smaller neurotransmitters (acetylcholine)
    • Cell body; larger neurotransmitters
  64. Agonist:
    a drug that mimics a neurotransmitter, or increases its effect.
  65. Antagonist:
    a drug that blocks or decreases effects of the neurotransmitter.
  66. Affinity: ability of a drug to bind to a receptor.
  67. Efficacy: the degree to which the drug activates the receptor once bound.
  68. types of drug affects
    • agonistic
    • antagonistic
  69. Vasopressin
    constricts blood vessels, raises blood pressure; decreases urine volume
  70. Oxytocin:
    controls uterine contractions milk release, parental behavior
  71. Hippocampus (seahorse)
    • Critical for memory, formation of new memory
    • Korsakoff’s syndrome affect hippocampus
  72. Sulcus:
    groove in cortex
  73. Enteric NS “third autonomic system”
    • In walls of GI tract
    • Separate nervous system just to regulate digestion
  74. Gyrus:
    ridge of cortex