anthro121 MT1

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  1. 4 main parts of anthropology
    • biological
    • cultural
    • variation
    • evolution
  2. 4 major subfields of anthropology
    • archeology
    • linguistics
    • biological
    • cultural
  3. religion
    the belief in the supernatural
  4. supernatural
    that which is beyond our normal experience
  5. earliest religious behavior -- when, who, what
    • neaderthals burial; indicated belief in afterlife
    • 70,000 yrs ago
    • extended burial: layed out flat in same direction
    • flexed burial: like a womb
  6. early religion of upper paleolithic -- when, evidence
    • 28,000 - 21,000 years before present
    • cave art & sculpture in the round
  7. E.B. Taylor -- when, theory
    • 1880s writer [20-30 yrs after Darwin's Natural Selection]
    • unilineal cultural evolutionary theory
  8. unilineal cultural evolutionary theory
    all human cultures start out as savages, progress to barbarism and develop into civilization
  9. Taylor said that all cultures start out in...
    animism ==> polytheism ==> monotheism
  10. animism
    • belief in spirits
    • belief that things have a soul
    • the idea of a soul is the result of dreams... concept of a "ghost soul"
  11. Callisto Myth
    • Zeus is invited to dinner by princess's father
    • King feeds Zues human flesh (abhored by Greeks)
    • Zeus massacres family, except for one daughter he likes
    • Hera decides to punish him... daughter will grow up, marry and have son... disguise as bear, hunted by own father
    • Zues intervenes, tosses "bear" into the sky to become Ursa Major and daughter, Ursa Minor.... never allowed to rest
  12. culture that believed that man contained the most # of souls and how many
    Fang, 7
  13. the Ga of Southern Africa believed everyone had two souls and needed them plus three more things to be an individual --- names of souls plus three things
    • kla: life force
    • susuma: conscious personality, subconscious

    • a body
    • good luck (gheshi)
    • a name
  14. 4 basic elements that all religions have:
    • myth
    • taboo
    • symbolism
    • ritual
  15. Dream Time
    remote antiquity when ancestors lived on Earth in "the beginning" in toltemic clans... Yir Yoront
  16. Yir Yorant
    • Australian aboriginal group
    • live close to water yet have no boats (want to live as ancestors did)
    • believe in Dream Time - remote antiquity when ancestors lived on Earth in "the beginning" in toltemic clans
    • stone axe head is most treasured tool, how men control women
  17. soul
    the spiritual or immaterial part of a human being or animal, regarded as immortal
  18. myth, three points
    • acts as science; answers questions
    • template for behavior
    • way to convery cultural info
  19. Zeus and Io
    • Zeus tries to seduce Io
    • worries Hera may be watching, creates a cloud to hide in and turns Io into heifer... says it's a gift to Hera
    • Hera places heifer under the watchful eyes of Argus (100-eyed best friend)
    • Zeus conspired with Hermes to kill Argus
    • Hera plucks Argus' eyes and turns them into the eyes of peacock feathers
    • Zeus finally consorts with Io and Herculese is born
    • Hera creates gadfly to pester Io
  20. why anthropologists dislike missionaries
    • the organic-unity concept: an ideal society is in perfect equalibrium and change produced by outside contact is harmful
    • the meaninglessness of religious beliefs: majority of anthropologists are agnostic or atheist
  21. emic vs etic
    insider's view vs outsider's view
  22. taboo
    • rules of behavior
    • function is to set limits or boundries on behavior. narrow choices
  23. Nyoro myth (Uganda)
    • three sons myth created for socio/political order
    • eldest: servant and cultivator [picks knife, food, headring, axe]
    • 2nd: cattlemen [picks up thong]
    • youngest: father's heir [picks up ox's head]
  24. Levy-Strauss [1908-2009]
    • "father of modern anthropology"
    • binary oppositions: all choices are made into "yes or no"
    • Structuralism has been defined as "the search for the underlying patterns of thought in all forms of human activity."
  25. Kin Jae festival Thailand
    • theme of duality .... good and evil
    • vegetarian
    • example of syncretic religion... influenced by Hindu faiths
    • Chinese taught ancient rites
    • Yan Suag Tae -- pig butcher swore off meat, didn't want to step on ants, killed himself instead
    • 9 gods comprise Ursa Major
  26. syncretic
    the amalgamation or attempted amalgamation of different religions, cultures, or schools of thought
  27. Norse creation myth
    • beginning was a void
    • cold north and hot south merge to form water and mist
    • Ymir, first giant to appear (Odin's grandfather)
    • Odin and brothers kill Ymir and make the heavens and Earth
    • Midgard- where humans were placed, here first man and woman were created from trees, ash and elm
  28. salvation cocktail
    strychnine and lye poison drank by serpent-handlers of W. Virginia
  29. Holiness Chruch
    serpent-handlers of W. Virginia place of worship
  30. rite of passage
    a ritual event that marks a person's progress from one status to another
  31. Sunna
    Norse; the sun, she is described as the sister of the personified moon, Máni


    in female genital mutilation, Type 1: the removal of the hood and/or tip of clitoris
  32. van Gennep
    • ethnographer
    • wrote Rites of Passage; 1909.
    • these rituals divided into 3 phases:
    • separation ==> liminal (marginal) ==> aggregation
  33. Menomini tribe, Wisconsin
    • everyone has two souls, intellect and body
    • intellect: hangs around after death; mischevious
    • body: travels west over milky way
    • 4 day journey; resists temptation [fountain,giant wild strawberry]
    • soul reaches river, log as bridge to salvation, dog as guide
    • spend eternity eating wild strawberries, playing lacross
  34. Black Plague
    • 1347-1350
    • 25-30 million died
    • began in Italy
    • 3 types: bubonic, pneumonic, hemorragic
  35. Flagellants
    • Christian sect who whipped people to take away others sins
    • 33.5 day campaigns (each day referred to a year of Jesus' earthly life) of penance
    • Clement VI officially condemned them in a bull of October 20, 1349
  36. holistic
    "The tendency in nature to form wholes that are greater than the sum of the parts through creative evolution."
  37. divination
    • a set of rituals designed to answer a question
    • the practice of seeking knowledge of the future or the unknown by supernatural means.
    • types often end in -omancy or -imancy
    • soothsayer
  38. King Isaza myth
    • King Isaza came to the thrown a very young man
    • drove away elders replaced with his young friends
    • killed a zebra, stiched it to himself
    • zebra skin dries and almost kills him, friends are no help
    • elders come to his rescue by throwing him in pond
    • "respect your elders"
  39. Tsembaga
    • from New Guinea
    • Kaiko pig festival
    • agriculturalists
  40. Pythoness or Pythia
    • the oracle at Dephi, Mt. Parnassus
    • place of divination for 1200 years
    • she spoke in tongues "glossolalia"
  41. Cleopatra type of divination
    margretomancy -- pearls in oil
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anthro121 MT1
anthro121 MT1
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