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What Historical Context happened at the time of Plato?
1.Winning the Persian War. This lead to the Introduction of culturalðical relativism aka Rise of Sophists.
- 2.Lost the Pelopannesian War.
- 3.To deny relativism is propose objectivism
Who is Euthyphro and what does he say to socrates?
- 1. He is a judge whose putting is father on trial for murder.
- 2.Socrates asks him what it means to be pious?
- -Euthyphro says "What is pious is what the gods love"
- 3.Socrates then asks, "Do the Gods love it becuase its Pious. or is it pious becuase the gods love it?"
- 4.Euthro. dsnt know and says "ihate you socrates"
Who wants to deny sophists to build back hope?
Socrates aka plato.
Do you think its X because it really is X or do You think it is X?
Euthyphro's Dilemma in its purests form.
What would be an alternative title for Plato's "Apology"?
- I'm Not Sorry.
- -he was stating more of his defense rather then apologyzing for being a curious or in the views of athenians "inpious"
What was Socrates charged with in the "Apology"?
- 1.Corrupting the youth
- -he visited the Delphic Oracle and was told he was wise. Socrates didnt believe so, so he wanted to ask ppl who were noted in being wise what it is they know.
What was the outcome of Socrates "court case"?
- He was sentenced to death.
- However, not afraid because either way he would win. -if he died, he would hang out w/all other dead ppl
- -death is nothing, so he had nothing to fear
- -they dont kill him, then he still wins
What are the two possibilities of the aftermath of "death" in socrates opinion?
1. A nothingness-nothing to fear if theres is simply, nothing.
2. Something-nothing to fear if a there is, is Socrates spending eternity w/all of the other dead.
What does the Delphic Oracle tell Socrates? and What does he conclude?
- The Delphic Oracle tells Socrates he is the wisest person.
- -Socrates concludes: he knows neither he or his expert knows anything, but he knows that he knows nothing. Where the expert believes he knows what he does not know.
- -aka the ppl he asks questions thinks he is asking questions he already knows the answer to and is just jerking them around.
Who is Crito in "Crito"?
- He is a friend of socrates who wants to help him escape the prison. Him and other friends of socrates try to convince socrates to break out of prison.
- convinces by:
- -talking of his sons becoming orphans
- -betraying himself by not saving himself
- -how he will lose a good friend(irreplacable)
- -how he is letting the ppl agianst him win by speeding up the process of ending his life
What does Plato's "Crito" establish?
- 1.The worth of Opinions-not all opinions are=
- 2.When considering the worth of opinion its best to listen to the one that understands justice&injustice.
- -consider anthropomorphized Law
- --w/out law, there is no civilization
- 3.Socrates must not violate the law now(its unjust)
- -living well and nobly and justly are the same
What is Plato's "Meno" overall concept?
- The meaning of virtue.
- -Socratic Aporia--they still do not know what virtue is, but at least they now know, that they do not know.
What is "A Datum"?
- Everyone wants goodness, no one wants anything bad.
- -at the very least, we all want what we "think" is good for us, if not good for everyone else
- -Questn. How can we know what is good for us?
How do we get knowledge in General?
- All knowledge is just remembering what we already know.
- --what we know was good, the beautiful and other things.
What happens in Plato's "Phaedo"?
1.Still nothing to fear because sine all knowledge is reclaimed after death, then death is still a good thing.
2.Sameness can never be determined by perceptual experiences so there's No real definition for it.
3.First time Plato entirely free to put his own views in socrates mouth.
4.The Soul is Immortal!- if it brings/causes life, it can not be the cause of or conspire w/death.
What happens in Plato's "Symposium"?
- 1.All Love is motivated by our desire for the beautiful, &to have it eternally.
- -all desires are motivated by love of the good even when the good is jus good for oneself.
- --we are All moved by Love itself
- 2. Plato's theory accounts for change through love.
What is "The Process to the Beautiful"?
- 1. Love, 1st- A single body
- 2. Love, Next- Many bodies
- 3. Then, Love- Souls & Practices
- 4. From Practices, we must then love-The study of souls& Practices
- 5. Finally-we come to recongize the Beautiful itself
What happens in Plato's "Republic"?
1. Thyrasymachus: there is no real justice or injustice, but just what we csn get away with.
- 2. Socrates: let us watch the creation of a city and see where justice/injustice enters.
- -concludes there is more justice in a City then in a man.
- ---basically yuu have to study society to figure out what justice and injustice is. (my understanding) or jusitice/injustice is based on the city, it differs with time and other variables
What does Republic mean?
It means "Public Matter"