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  1. Alfred Russell Wallace
    • "Father of Biogeology"
    • Develops theory of natural selection independent of Darwin; receives little credit.
    • "convergent evolution"
  2. Thomas Henry Huxley
    • "Darwin's Bulldog"
    • Feisty orator spoke on Darwin's behalf.
  3. Gregor Mendel
    • "Father of Modern Genetics"
    • Augustinian monk accomplished in mathematics and sciences.
    • Developed 2 laws in Biology:
    • 1) Law of Segregation
    • 2)Law of Independent Assortment
    • Previously, people believed in "blending" process to inherit physical traits.
  4. Herbert Spencer
    • "Survival of the fittest"
    • Proponent of Social Darwinism (applies evolution to human societies and cultures.)
    • Ladder of societies: barbarians>savages>civilized folk
  5. Ernst Heckel
    • "ontogeny recapitulates phylology" - individual development repeats ancestral development
    • Social Darwinist and racist
    • "The Jewish Question"
  6. Francis Galton
    • Founder of Eugenics Movement
    • Statistician, sought to quantify heritable human traits from height to intelligence.
    • Implemented sterilization policies.
  7. 4 steps of Natural Selection
    • 1) Overpopulation
    • 2) Inherited genetic variation within the population.
    • 3) Individuals with the genes or adaptations most suitable to their environment should survive and reproduce.
    • 4) Offspring of individuals that reproduced physically resemble their parents.
  8. Charles Lyell
    • Studied geologic strata
    • Rediscovered and confirmed Hutton's estimate of Earth's very old age, uniformitarianism
    • Influenced Darwin:
    • the earth is ancient and ever-changing.
  9. James Hutton
    • Founded modern geology with:
    • theory of the earth's formation
    • Idea of uniformitarianism
  10. George Cuvier
    • Studied fossils extensively.
    • Revealed much variation in the fossil record.
  11. John Ray
    • Pioneered taxonomy based on physical appearance.
    • Created first scientific classification of plants and animals.
  12. Carolus Linnaeus
    • Wrote Systems of Nature
    • Presented the binomial nomenclature taxonomy of plants and animals.
  13. Thomas Malthus
    • Founded demography - only some will find enough food to survive.
    • Provided concept of characteristics advantageous for survival.
  14. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
    • Lamarckism - Posited characteristics acquired via inheritance.
    • Provided first serious model of physical traits' passing from parents to offspring.
  15. Anthropology
    • The study of humankind.
    • 4 branches:
    • cultural
    • archaeology
    • linguistics
    • physical/biological
Card Set
Midterm 1
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