Genetics plants and organisms study guide.txt

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Author:
rincrocci
ID:
105146
Filename:
Genetics plants and organisms study guide.txt
Updated:
2011-09-29 02:57:40
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genetics
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Description:
plants and organisms
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  1. How old is universe and life
    4.5-5 Bil years old
  2. 1st form of life
    RNA
  3. prokaryotes characteristics
    • no nucleus
    • no membrane bound organelles
    • circular chromosome
    • circular DNA
  4. eukaryotic characteristics
    • has nucleus
    • has membrane bound organelles
    • linear chromosomes
    • larger ribosome (80S) vs prokaryotes
  5. Endosymbiosis
    Idea that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free floating organisms BUT then were engulfed into eukaryotes
  6. Evidence of endosymbiosis
    • 1. RIBOSOMES (70S ribosomes in mitochondria & chloroplasts as seen in prok)
    • 2. STRUCTURE (mitochondria & chloroplasts similar structure to prok)
    • Both have their own DNA and have CIRCULAR chromosomes
  7. Brief history of life
    • multicellular organisms ~1bil yr (in water)
    • then plants released O2 to produce O3 which protects from UV radiation, aiding evolution of things on land
    • then humans
  8. HomoSapiens
    • 3.2BIL bps
    • 23chromosomes
    • haploid = 23 (# of chrom in sperm or egg)
    • 2n = 46 (somatic cells have 46 chrom)
  9. Mice
    • Mus musculus
    • Diploid 2n = 40chromosomes
    • 99% homology w/humans
    • seq 2002
  10. flies
    • Drosophilia
    • 50% homology w/humans
    • LOTS of mutants
    • 1 female has lots of eggs
    • 2n = 8
    • seq 2000
  11. see thru worm
    • C elegans
    • can visualize exact DIVISION patterns cuz its see thru
    • 25% homology to humans
    • 2n = 10 (5autosomes)
    • seq 1998
  12. Yeast
    • S cerevisiae
    • n=16 chromosomes
    • 25% homology to humans
    • 2 mating types: schmoo (sexual reprod..genetic exchange due to receptor signaling, then split apart into haploid again) and budding
    • seq 1996
  13. Arabidopsis
    • 2n= 10
    • LOTS of mutants
    • similar protein fxns in animals and plants
    • seq 2000
  14. Plant LIFEcycle
    • female:
    • Meiocyte goes thru meiosis and only 1 of 4n survive
    • mitosis occurs and result is: MEGASPORE mother cell
    • fertilizes with the sperm and 2n + sperm n = 3n endosperm (1n from dad, 2n from mom)
    • endosperm provides nutrients for embryo to grow!
    • male:
    • meiocyte goes thru meiosis and all 4n sperm survive
    • mitosis occurs and result is: MICROspore
  15. Microspore
    • contains 2 haploid sperm cells
    • 1 used to fertilize egg nucleus (create 2n diploid embryo)
    • 1 used to fertilize 2 polar nuclei (creates the endosperm, provides nutrients for embryo growth)
  16. Megaspore Mother cell and interaction w/sperm
    • contains:
    • egg nucleus (n), which is fertilized by one sperm (n) = 2n
    • 2 haploid polar nuclei (n), which fertilized by one sperm (n) = 3n

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