Child Psych 1st test vocab

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  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    Mental retardation, slow growth & facial abnormalities caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy
  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
    Range of physical, mental & behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure
  3. Embryo
    Prenatal organism fr. 2-8 wks aft conception
  4. Amnion
    Membrane that encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid
  5. Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder
    Least severe FAS disorder causing brain inj but w/normal physical growth& absence of facial abnormalities
  6. Age of Viability
    Age @ which a fetus can survive if born early
  7. Teratogen
    Any environmental agent that causes damage during prenatal period
  8. Developmental Science
    All changes we experience during our life span
  9. Microsystem
    Bronfenbrenner's innermost level of environment that includes activities & interaction patterns in immediate surroundings
  10. Mesosystem
    Bronfenbrenner's 2nd level of environment that encompasses connections between microsystems; home, school, neighborhood etc
  11. Describe Sociocultural Theory
    The ways that culture of a social grp is transmitted fr generation to generation
  12. Independent Variable
    One that an investigator expects to cause change in another variable
  13. Describe an Environmental Design
    Design that permits inferences about cause & effect b/c researchers use an evenhanded procedure to assign ppl 2 or more tx conds
  14. What is a structured observation?
    One where an investigator sets up a lab situation to evoke certain behavior so each participant has = opportunity to display a response
  15. Describe a Naturalistic Observation.
    Observing behavior of interest in the field or natural environment
  16. What is Bronfenbrenner's Macrosystem?
    Outermost level of environment & includes culture, values, laws, customs & resources
  17. Describe Bronfenbrenner's exosystem.
    These are social settings that dont contain children but affect childrens experiences in immediate settings
  18. What is plasticity?
    Ability for development to be open to change in response to influential experiences
  19. What are contexts?
    Unique combinations of environmental & personal circumstances resulting in different paths of change
  20. What is the fetus?
    A prenatal organism fr 9th wk to end of pregnancy
  21. Describe implantation.
    Time when blastocyst burrows deep into uterine lining
  22. Describe Partial Fetal Alcohol Sndrome.
    FAS disorder characterized by facial abnormalities & brain inj caused by consumption of sm amts of alcohol during pregnancy
  23. What is the placenta?
    Structure that separates mother's bloodstream fr that of fetus while permitting exchange of nutrients & waste
  24. What are trimesters?
    3 equal periods in prenatal period
  25. The umbilical card is. . . .
    The link between the prenatal organism & the placenta
  26. A dependent variable is one that . . . .
    the investigator expects to be influenced by an independent variable
  27. Describe random assignment.
    Unbiased procedure used to choose participants that increases chances that characteristics will be equally distributed across tx grp
  28. A longitudinal design is one that. . . .
    participants are studied as they age & changes are noted
  29. Childhood development is an area devoted to what?
    Understanding constancy & change fr conception thru adolescence
  30. Behavior Modification is described as what?
    Procedures that combine conditioning & modeling t eliminate undesirable behaviors & increase desirable ones
  31. What is mutation?
    A sudden permanent change to DNA
  32. Genetic counseling . . . .
    Helps couples to assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a heredity disorder & choose the best course of action
  33. What are prenatal diagnostic methods?
    Medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems b/f birth
  34. What is coparenting?
    Mutually supporting each others parenting behaviors
  35. What is Socioeconomic Status & 3 variables that determine it?
    Combined factors that help determine social position & economic well being. Determined by (1) Yrs of education (2) job prestige & skill requirements (3) Income
  36. An extended family household is one that . . . .
    parents & children live with one or more adult relatives
  37. What are fetal monitors?
    Electronic instruments that track fetal HR during labor
  38. Describe induced labor.
    Labor is started artificially by breaking the amnion & admin oxytocin to stim contractions
  39. What is a cesarian delivery?
    Surgical birth of a child
  40. Describe Breech Position.
    When a fetus is presenting with feet or buttocks 1st.
  41. What is a theory?
    An orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains & predicts behavior
  42. What are cohort effects?
    A threat to accuracy in longitudinal findings caused by cultural/historical change
  43. Describe behaviorism.
    Directly observable events - stimuli & responses
  44. What does Maturation refer to?
    A genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth
  45. Erikson's psychosocial theory states that. . . .
    In addition to mediating between Id impulses & superego demands, Ego makes positive contributions to development
  46. Freud's psychosexual Theory say that. . . .
    The way parents manage their child's sexual & aggressive drives in 1st few yrs is crucial for healthy personality development
  47. The psychoanalytic perspective says that. . . .
    Children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives & social expectations. How they resolved determines persons ability to learn, get along w/others & cope w/anxiety
  48. The social learning theory recognizes that . . .
    Children acquire skills by modeling, observing & imitating others
  49. Information Processing is what?
    A view of human mind that ses it as a symbol manipulating system through which info flows
  50. What is DNA?
    The chem substance that makes up chromosomes
  51. A gene is . . . .
    Segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome
  52. Gametes are what?
    Sex cells - sperm & ovum
  53. Meiosis is the process of what?
    Cell division that forms gametes or sex cells
  54. Resilience is described as what?
    Ability to adapt effectively in face of threats to development
  55. What is mitosis?
    Process of DNA duplicating itself
  56. A zygote is a . . . .
    cell that results when a sperm & ovum unite
  57. Sex chromosomes are which ones?
    The 23rd pair. Males = XY Females = XX
  58. A phenotypes is what?
    A directly observable characteristic of an individual
  59. Kinship Studies are those that. . .
    Compare characteristics of family members in order to obtain heritability estimates
  60. Public policies are . . .
    Laws & govt programs designed to improve current conditions
  61. A stage is described as what?
    qualitative changes in thinking, feeling & behaving that characterize specific periods of development
  62. An allele is . . . .
    One gene fr mother & one fr father that occur on the same place on a chromosome
  63. Fraternal or dizygotic twins are described as what?
    2 infants resulting fr the release & fertilization of 2 ova but are genetically NOT alike
  64. Homozygous occurs when?
    Alleles fr both parents are alike & the child will display the inherited trait
  65. Heterozygous occurs when?
    Alleles fr each parent are different
  66. Continuous development is described as what?
    Process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with
  67. Identical or monozygotic twins occur when?
    A zygote separates into 2 clusters of cells that develop into 2 individuals w/same genetic make up
  68. Autosomes are what?
    23 matching pairs of chromosomes which geneticists number fr longest to shortest
  69. A genotype is what?
    A complex blend of genetic info that determines our species & influences all our unique characteristics
  70. Chromosomes are . . . .
    Rod like substances that store & transmit genetic info
  71. X-linked inheritance applies when?
    A harmful allele is carried on the X chromosome. Males a more likely to be affected.
  72. Describe dominant - recessive inheritance.
    Occurs when only 1 allele affects a childs characteristics
  73. A carrier is a . . . .
    heterozygous individual w/1 recessive allele that they can pass on to their children
  74. Natural or prepared child birth is one that utilizes . . .
    A grp of techniques aimed @ reducing pain & medical intervention & makes child birth as rewarding as possible
  75. The APGAR scale is a way of. . .
    Assessing a newborn's condition quickly
  76. A transition in labor occurs when?
    At climax of stage 1 when frequency & strength of contractions are @ their peak & cervix opens completely
  77. Discontinuous development is what?
    Development process in which new ways of understanding & responding to the world emerge @ specific times
  78. A clinical interview is described as what?
    A flexible, conversational style used to probe participants for their POV
  79. The clinical or case study method is described as a. . . .
    Method for brining together a wide range of info on one child to include interviews, observation &/or test scores
  80. Cognitive - developmental theory says that. . . .
    Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate & explore their worlds
  81. A sensitive period is one that is. . . .
    Biologically optimal for certain capacities to emerge b/c individual is especially responsive to environmental influences
  82. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is described as . . .
    Info processing research that brings together researchers fr psychology, biology, neuroscience & medicine to study relationship between changes in brain & developing childs cognitive processing & behavior patterns
  83. Visual acuity is what?
    Fineness of discrimination
  84. SIDS is described as the . . . .
    Unexpected death of an infant <1 yr of age
  85. Rapid eye mvmt sleep is defined as?
    Sleep state when brain wave activity is very similar to that of the waking state
  86. States of arousal are defined as?
    Degrees of sleep or wakefulness
  87. A reflex is an . . . .
    Inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation
  88. Bonding is the development of what?
    Feelings of affection & concern for an infant
  89. Neonatal Mortality is the . . . .
    Rate of death within the 1st month of life
  90. Nature vs nurture controversy is an age old argument that what?
    Questions whether genetic or environmental factors are more important in influencing development
  91. Infant mortality is described as what?
    Number of deaths in 1st year of life/1000 live births
  92. A small-for-date child is described as one that . . .
    Is below expected weight considering length of pregnancy
  93. Anoxia defined as what?
    Inadequate O2 supply
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Child Psych 1st test vocab
Vocab for 1st test
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