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What is cartography?
The study and making of maps in all their aspects

What are the three aspects of GIS
The three aspects of Geographic Information Systems are: the capture, storage, retrevial, output, and analysis of spatial data

What is the purpose of Reference Maps? WHat are the emphasis of Reference maps?
 to show a variety of features of the world or a portion of it
 Location and Accuracy

What do Thematic Maps explain? What is their purpose?
 they demonstrate particular features or concepts
 They show the distribution of a single attrubute or the relationship among several

What is an example of a Thematic Map?
 A church density map
 A racial landscape map

What is the difference between the Thematic maps: quantitative and qualitative?
 Quantitative displays the spatial aspects of numerical data
 Qualitative displays the spatial distribution or location of kind

What is significant about the Tropics of Cancer and Capicorn?
They are the northernmost and southernmost positions where the Sun lies directly overhead

_______ is the northsouth angular distance from the _____ to the point of interest.
Latitude; Equator

______ is the angle from the ______ _______ to the ________ passing through the point of interest.
Longitude; Primary Meridian; Meridian

A mathematical model of the earth. serving as the reference for calculating the geographic coordinates of a location
Datum

What is the definition of great circles?
The largest possible circles on the surface of the spherical earth

What is the definition of a map scale?
the ratio between map and ground distance

What is the definition of Geographic Coordinate Sysyem?
is a coordinate system that enables every location on the Earth to be specified by a set of numbers

A mathematical model that transforms the locations of features on the earth's curved surface to locations on a 2D surface
Map Projection

What are the three types of Projections based on Projection Surface?
 Plane (Azimuthal)
 Cylindral
 Conic

What are the features of Cylindrical Projection Surface?
 Area, angle, distance, or direction may be distorted
 Bands parallel to the line(s) of tangency are LEAST distorted
 outer edges of map are exaggerated

What are the characteristics of Conic Projection Surfaces?
 Tangency along parallels
 Compress scale in areas between the standard lines
 Map areas having greater eastwest extent
 Ex. Continental United States

What are the characteristics of the Azimuthal Projection Surface?
 Directions from the projection's center to all points are correct, and others are NOT correct
 Ex. GPS navigation
 Scale factor is one

Explain the characteristics of the Universal Tranverse Mercator coordinate system.
 60 zones, each 6 degrees of longitude wide
 each zone has its own origin

Explain the State Plane Coordinate System.
 Each U.S. state has its own coordinate systems with high accuracy
 boundaries between zones in one states follow county boundaries
 4x as accurate as UTM

What is the definition of the Principle Scale?
 the scale of the generating globe
 units compared to units on the graph

What is the purpose of vector data?
it uses point, line and polygon to represent spatial features

Explain the characteristics of Nominal Vector Data.
 Use numbers and letters to label objects
 NO mathematical operations between classes
 Used for identification
 ex. zip code map

Explain the characteristics of Ordinal Vector Data.
 Objects are RANKED from least to most or vice versa
 NO mathematical operations between observations
 MEANINGLESS DIFFERENCES among observations
 ex: traffic color map

Explain the charactersitics of Interval Vector Data.
 Objects are RANKED
 Distance between ranks can be known
 Zero: ARBITRARY
 Distances make sense, but RATIOS DO NOT
 Ex. Temperature maps

Explain the characteristics of Ratio Vector Attributes.
 Objects are ORDERED with known distancs
 Zero: absence of a phenomenon
 BOTH DISTANCE AND RATIOS MAKE SENSE

Name the Classification, Advantages and Disadvantages of Equal Intervals.
 range divided number of classes
 easy to calculate
 not suggested in sharply skewed data

Name the Classification, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Quantiles.
 Data is RANKED and Equal Numbers of observations are placed in each class
 total observations/number of classes
 same percentage of observations in each class
 not suggested in sharply skewed data

Name the classification, advantages, and disadvantages of Natural Breaks.
 To minimize differences within classes and maximize differences between classes
 subjective
 class limits easily computed
 good for identifying natural clustering

WHat are the two parameters in isoline mapping?

A region that is represented by rectangular blocks and assigned attributes to different cells
Raster Model

WHat are three characteristics of Raster Models?
 Each cell can only own ONE FEATURE
 Lines can become flat
 Areas may need separately coded edges

What is a DEM Raster Model?
 An array of uniformly spaced elevation data
 (a.k.a Digital Elevation Model)

What are the pros and cons of LIDAR?
 Pros: highly accurate
 Cons: requires a lot of time to remove noises

Images obtained by spaceborne or airborne sensors sensitive to particular parts of the electromagnetic spectrum
Aerial Photo

The geometric center of a photograph and the point on the ground in line with axis of a camera lens
Principal Point

The point o the ground that was directly below the camera
Nadir

WHat is the First Law of Geography According to Waldo Tobler?
"Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things."

WHich Sampling method requires you to choose a grid?
Stratified sampling

The amount of detail used to report a measurement
Precision

WHat is postional accuracy?
Horizontal vs. Vertical

How well a map reflects the temporal nature of the area
Temporal Accuracy

A measure of spatial interdependence of a variable, and the nature and strength of the interdependencies
Spatial Autocorrelation

What are the 4 factors determining the visual effects of Relief Portrayal?
 direction of sunlight (sun's azimouth)
 angle of sunlight
 your actual surface
 slope

