# Intro To Mapping Midterm Study Guide

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1. What is cartography?
The study and making of maps in all their aspects
2. What are the three aspects of GIS
The three aspects of Geographic Information Systems are: the capture, storage, retrevial, output, and analysis of spatial data
3. What is the purpose of Reference Maps? WHat are the emphasis of Reference maps?
• to show a variety of features of the world or a portion of it
• Location and Accuracy
4. What do Thematic Maps explain? What is their purpose?
• they demonstrate particular features or concepts
• They show the distribution of a single attrubute or the relationship among several
5. What is an example of a Thematic Map?
• A church density map
• A racial landscape map
6. What is the difference between the Thematic maps: quantitative and qualitative?
• Quantitative displays the spatial aspects of numerical data
• Qualitative displays the spatial distribution or location of kind
7. What is significant about the Tropics of Cancer and Capicorn?
They are the northernmost and southernmost positions where the Sun lies directly overhead
8. _______ is the north-south angular distance from the _____ to the point of interest.
Latitude; Equator
9. ______ is the angle from the ______ _______ to the ________ passing through the point of interest.
Longitude; Primary Meridian; Meridian
10. A mathematical model of the earth. serving as the reference for calculating the geographic coordinates of a location
Datum
11. What is the definition of great circles?
The largest possible circles on the surface of the spherical earth
12. What is the definition of a map scale?
the ratio between map and ground distance
13. What is the definition of Geographic Coordinate Sysyem?
is a coordinate system that enables every location on the Earth to be specified by a set of numbers
14. A mathematical model that transforms the locations of features on the earth's curved surface to locations on a 2D surface
Map Projection
15. What are the three types of Projections based on Projection Surface?
• Plane (Azimuthal)
• Cylindral
• Conic
16. What are the features of Cylindrical Projection Surface?
• Area, angle, distance, or direction may be distorted
• Bands parallel to the line(s) of tangency are LEAST distorted
• outer edges of map are exaggerated
17. What are the characteristics of Conic Projection Surfaces?
• Tangency along parallels
• Compress scale in areas between the standard lines
• Map areas having greater east-west extent
• Ex. Continental United States
18. What are the characteristics of the Azimuthal Projection Surface?
• Directions from the projection's center to all points are correct, and others are NOT correct
• Scale factor is one
19. Explain the characteristics of the Universal Tranverse Mercator coordinate system.
• 60 zones, each 6 degrees of longitude wide
• each zone has its own origin
20. Explain the State Plane Coordinate System.
• Each U.S. state has its own coordinate systems with high accuracy
• boundaries between zones in one states follow county boundaries
• 4x as accurate as UTM
21. What is the definition of the Principle Scale?
• the scale of the generating globe
• units compared to units on the graph
22. What is the purpose of vector data?
it uses point, line and polygon to represent spatial features
23. Explain the characteristics of Nominal Vector Data.
• Use numbers and letters to label objects
• NO mathematical operations between classes
• Used for identification
• ex. zip code map
24. Explain the characteristics of Ordinal Vector Data.
• Objects are RANKED from least to most or vice versa
• NO mathematical operations between observations
• MEANINGLESS DIFFERENCES among observations
• ex: traffic color map
25. Explain the charactersitics of Interval Vector Data.
• Objects are RANKED
• Distance between ranks can be known
• Zero: ARBITRARY
• Distances make sense, but RATIOS DO NOT
• Ex. Temperature maps
26. Explain the characteristics of Ratio Vector Attributes.
• Objects are ORDERED with known distancs
• Zero: absence of a phenomenon
• BOTH DISTANCE AND RATIOS MAKE SENSE
• range divided number of classes
• easy to calculate
• not suggested in sharply skewed data
• Data is RANKED and Equal Numbers of observations are placed in each class
• total observations/number of classes
• same percentage of observations in each class
• not suggested in sharply skewed data
• To minimize differences within classes and maximize differences between classes
• subjective
• class limits easily computed
• good for identifying natural clustering
30. WHat are the two parameters in isoline mapping?
• Interval
• Base Value
31. A region that is represented by rectangular blocks and assigned attributes to different cells
Raster Model
32. WHat are three characteristics of Raster Models?
• Each cell can only own ONE FEATURE
• Lines can become flat
• Areas may need separately coded edges
33. What is a DEM Raster Model?
• An array of uniformly spaced elevation data
• (a.k.a Digital Elevation Model)
34. What are the pros and cons of LIDAR?
• Pros: highly accurate
• Cons: requires a lot of time to remove noises
35. Images obtained by spaceborne or airborne sensors sensitive to particular parts of the electromagnetic spectrum
Aerial Photo
36. The geometric center of a photograph and the point on the ground in line with axis of a camera lens
Principal Point
37. The point o the ground that was directly below the camera
38. WHat is the First Law of Geography According to Waldo Tobler?
"Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things."
39. WHich Sampling method requires you to choose a grid?
Stratified sampling
40. The amount of detail used to report a measurement
Precision
41. WHat is postional accuracy?
Horizontal vs. Vertical
42. How well a map reflects the temporal nature of the area
Temporal Accuracy
43. A measure of spatial interdependence of a variable, and the nature and strength of the interdependencies
Spatial Autocorrelation
44. What are the 4 factors determining the visual effects of Relief Portrayal?
• direction of sunlight (sun's azimouth)
• angle of sunlight