Intro To Mapping Midterm Study Guide
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What is cartography?
The study and making of maps in all their aspects
What are the three aspects of GIS
The three aspects of Geographic Information Systems are: the capture, storage, retrevial, output, and analysis of spatial data
What is the purpose of Reference Maps? WHat are the emphasis of Reference maps?
- to show a variety of features of the world or a portion of it
- Location and Accuracy
What do Thematic Maps explain? What is their purpose?
- they demonstrate particular features or concepts
- They show the distribution of a single attrubute or the relationship among several
What is an example of a Thematic Map?
- A church density map
- A racial landscape map
What is the difference between the Thematic maps: quantitative and qualitative?
- Quantitative displays the spatial aspects of numerical data
- Qualitative displays the spatial distribution or location of kind
What is significant about the Tropics of Cancer and Capicorn?
They are the northernmost and southernmost positions where the Sun lies directly overhead
_______ is the north-south angular distance from the _____ to the point of interest.
______ is the angle from the ______ _______ to the ________ passing through the point of interest.
Longitude; Primary Meridian; Meridian
A mathematical model of the earth. serving as the reference for calculating the geographic coordinates of a location
What is the definition of great circles?
The largest possible circles on the surface of the spherical earth
What is the definition of a map scale?
the ratio between map and ground distance
What is the definition of Geographic Coordinate Sysyem?
is a coordinate system that enables every location on the Earth to be specified by a set of numbers
A mathematical model that transforms the locations of features on the earth's curved surface to locations on a 2D surface
What are the three types of Projections based on Projection Surface?
- Plane (Azimuthal)
What are the features of Cylindrical Projection Surface?
- Area, angle, distance, or direction may be distorted
- Bands parallel to the line(s) of tangency are LEAST distorted
- outer edges of map are exaggerated
What are the characteristics of Conic Projection Surfaces?
- Tangency along parallels
- Compress scale in areas between the standard lines
- Map areas having greater east-west extent
- Ex. Continental United States
What are the characteristics of the Azimuthal Projection Surface?
- Directions from the projection's center to all points are correct, and others are NOT correct
- Ex. GPS navigation
- Scale factor is one
Explain the characteristics of the Universal Tranverse Mercator coordinate system.
- 60 zones, each 6 degrees of longitude wide
- each zone has its own origin
Explain the State Plane Coordinate System.
- Each U.S. state has its own coordinate systems with high accuracy
- boundaries between zones in one states follow county boundaries
- 4x as accurate as UTM
What is the definition of the Principle Scale?
- the scale of the generating globe
- units compared to units on the graph
What is the purpose of vector data?
it uses point, line and polygon to represent spatial features
Explain the characteristics of Nominal Vector Data.
- Use numbers and letters to label objects
- NO mathematical operations between classes
- Used for identification
- ex. zip code map
Explain the characteristics of Ordinal Vector Data.
- Objects are RANKED from least to most or vice versa
- NO mathematical operations between observations
- MEANINGLESS DIFFERENCES among observations
- ex: traffic color map
Explain the charactersitics of Interval Vector Data.
- Objects are RANKED
- Distance between ranks can be known
- Zero: ARBITRARYDistances make sense, but RATIOS DO NOTEx. Temperature maps
Explain the characteristics of Ratio Vector Attributes.
- Objects are ORDERED with known distancs
- Zero: absence of a phenomenonBOTH DISTANCE AND RATIOS MAKE SENSE
Name the Classification, Advantages and Disadvantages of Equal Intervals.
- range divided number of classes
- easy to calculate
- not suggested in sharply skewed data
Name the Classification, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Quantiles.
- Data is RANKED and Equal Numbers of observations are placed in each class
- total observations/number of classes
- same percentage of observations in each class
- not suggested in sharply skewed data
Name the classification, advantages, and disadvantages of Natural Breaks.
- To minimize differences within classes and maximize differences between classes
- class limits easily computed
- good for identifying natural clustering
WHat are the two parameters in isoline mapping?
A region that is represented by rectangular blocks and assigned attributes to different cells
WHat are three characteristics of Raster Models?
- Each cell can only own ONE FEATURE
- Lines can become flat
- Areas may need separately coded edges
What is a DEM Raster Model?
- An array of uniformly spaced elevation data
- (a.k.a Digital Elevation Model)
What are the pros and cons of LIDAR?
- Pros: highly accurate
- Cons: requires a lot of time to remove noises
Images obtained by spaceborne or airborne sensors sensitive to particular parts of the electromagnetic spectrum
The geometric center of a photograph and the point on the ground in line with axis of a camera lens
The point o the ground that was directly below the camera
WHat is the First Law of Geography According to Waldo Tobler?
"Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things."
WHich Sampling method requires you to choose a grid?
The amount of detail used to report a measurement
WHat is postional accuracy?
Horizontal vs. Vertical
How well a map reflects the temporal nature of the area
A measure of spatial interdependence of a variable, and the nature and strength of the interdependencies
What are the 4 factors determining the visual effects of Relief Portrayal?
- direction of sunlight (sun's azimouth)
- angle of sunlight
- your actual surface
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