Intro to Biology
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- (50-110 kcal/mol)
- Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share pairs of electrons
- The energy required to cleave is great, making covalent bonds stable under most cellular conditions-C-C- bonds ~85 kcal/mol
- Double bonds are formed when atoms share two pairs of electrons. -C=C- ~150 kcal/mol.
- (<5 kcal/mol)
- Ionic bonds (~3 kcal/mol): attraction between fully charged ions
- Hydrogen bonds (2-5 kcal/mol): partial charge attraction
- van der Waals interactions (~0.1 kcal/mol atom): transient charge
- Hydrophobic interactions
- transport proteins
- nutrient storage proteins
- contractile or motility proteins
- structural proteins
- defense proteins
- regulatory proteins
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