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  1. What does a Virus contain?
    Protein Coated Genetic Material
  2. What is the Protein Coating of a Virus called?
  3. What type of genetic material could Viruses have? RNA or DNA?
    They could have either RNA or DNA
  4. List 4 kinds of DNA-containing Viruses.
    • Warts
    • Pox
    • Adenovirus
    • Parvovirus
  5. List 3 kinds of RNA-containing Viurses.
    • HIV
    • Influenza
    • Polio
  6. Some Viruses may have plasma membrane called what?
  7. What are the Host Cells of HIV Viruses?
    • Macrophages
    • T-Lymphocytes
  8. Does the HIV Virus have an Envelope, Capsid, and Genetic Material?
    Yes, Yes, Yes.
  9. What are the Receptors on the Macrophages that HIV Virus bind to?
    CD4 Receptor and CCR5
  10. How do HIV Viruses get their genetic material into the Macrophage (Host Cell)?
    HIV Virus use the proteins on their envelope to bind to CD4 or CCR5 receptor. Then the membrane of Host Cell and Virus will fuse allowing Capsid to enter cell. Capsid then breaks apart allowing RNA into the cell.
  11. Other than Macrophages, what is another Host Cell to HIV?
  12. What are the receptors on the T-Lymphocyte that HIV binds to?
    CD4 & CXCR4
  13. Can the same strain of HIV that invades Macrophages invade T-Lymphocytes as well?
    No; different strain.
  14. What do Influenza and HIV have in common, structurally?
    They both have Envelopes and RNA.
  15. What is the difference between Influenza and HIV?
    Instead of the Plasma Membrane fusing, an invagination occurs on the Host Cell forming a pre-endosome.
  16. How is the Pre-Endosome Formation of Influenza triggered?
    When the Influenza receptors bind to the receptors of its Host Cell
  17. Once the invagination closes, what is now formed within the Host Cell?
    An Endosome with the Influenza virus inside
  18. How does the Influenza Virus insert its RNA into the Host Cell?
    The Endosome membrane will fuse with the Influenza envelope allowing the Capsid to leave. The Capsid then breaks apart and RNA is released.
  19. What are the structural differences/similarities of Polio when compared to Influenza and HIV?
    Polio has RNA like both, but NO envelope.
  20. When Polio binds to its Host Cell, what happens in order for the Polio virus to inject its RNA?
    Binding will initiate formation of Endosome. Once Endosome is formed, proteins of the Polio will drill a hole causing a small opening in the Endosome membrane. Although the Capsid cannot fit through, Polio will shove the RNA out of that opening leaving the Capsid inside the Endosome.
  21. Describe the Adenovirus structure in regards to genetic material and if it has an envelope.
    DNA; No Envelope
  22. How does the Adenovirus enter the Host Cell?
    Via Endosomes
  23. How does the Adenovirus inject its DNA into the Host Cell once inside the Endosome?
    The Adenovirus will cause lysis of the endosome resulting in the breakdown of the Capsid and release of DNA.
  24. What is the problem with DNA being released into the cytoplasm of the Host Cell and what does Adenovirus do to fix it?
    Since DNA does not belong in the cytoplasm, a small part of the Adenovirus Capsid will remain with the Viral DNA until it enters the Nucleus.
  25. What happens once Viral DNA enters the Nucleus?
    • Replication of Viral DNA
    • Transcription of Viral RNA
    • Viral RNA Translation
    • Viral Protein forms Capsid
    • Viral DNA enters Capsid
  26. What happens once Viral RNA enters the Cell/Nucleus?
    • Viral RNA to Viral DNA via Reverse Transcriptase
    • Replication of Viral DNA
    • Transcription of Viral RNA
    • Translation of Viral RNA
    • Viral Protein forms Capsid
    • Viral DNA enters Capsid
  27. How do the Viruses with NO Envelope exit the Cell?
  28. How do the Viruses WITH Envelope exit the Cell?
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