EMT-B Test 2 Part 3
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Movement of air in or out with a single inspiration or exhalation.
The name of the bifurcation in the trachea is called the ______ and it divides into the right and left ______.
How far do you insert suction and what is the amount of time to suction?
- As far as you can see, to the base of the tongue.
- 15 seconds.
What is the average alveolar ventilation in liters that a person will breathe in one minute?
4 to 4.5 L/minute
What is one cause of wheezing?
- Lower airway obstruction
List five structures of the upper airway
- Nasopharynx (nose)
- Orapharynx (mouth)
- Vocal Chords
Name three complications of hyperventilating your patient.
- Increases intrathoracic pressure
- Decreased preload
- Decreased CO
- Gastric distension
What are the two primary muscles used in respiration?
Name two adjuncts used to maintain an open airway.
List seven functions of the respiratory system.
- Transfer of oxygen to the body
- Removal of CO2 and waste
- Warm air
- Moisten air
- Acid-base balance
- Gas exchange
List six structures in the lower airway.
- Mainstem Bronchus (L and R)
- Alveolar ducts
What is the difference between the right and left lungs?
- Right has 3 lobes
- Left has 2 lobes
Define oxygenation and ventilation.
- Oxygenation: Saturation of the body with oxygen.
- Ventilation: Movement of air in or out of the body in a single inspiration or expiration
Name to maneuvers to open an airway.
- Head tilt chin lift
- Jaw thrust
What is the best indicator that a BVM is working properly?
Equal chest rise and fall.
What stimulates respiration?
Hypoxic / CO2 drive
Define dead air space.
- Air between the mouth and alveoli.
- Air that never reaches the alveoli.
Describe how to measure an OPA. What are two advantages and disadvantages?
- Measure: From the corner of the mouth to the ear.
- Advantages: Blocks tongue from back of the throat, bite block, better than an NPA, can suction through them.
- Disadvantages: Can trigger a gag reflex, cannot use on semi-conscious or conscious, can cause soft tissue trauma, may occlude airway
Which structure prevents food from entering the trachea?
List the flow rate for a nasal cannula, non-rebreather, and bag valve mask.
- NC: 2-6 L/min
- NRB: 8-15 L/min
- NVM: 15+
Define respiratory distress.
Inadequate ventilation and oxygenation
What is the maximum suctioning time and why is there a limit?
- Max: 15 seconds
- Limit: Removal of potential oxygen from patient
How do you measure an NPA? What are two advantages and disadvantages?
- Measurement: Tip of the nose to tip of the ear.
- Advantages: Can be used on conscious and semi-conscious patients, can be used in patients with a gag reflex, doesn't block the airway, suction through it.
- Disadvantages: Soft tissue injury, epistaxis, easily occluded, may have troubling inserting with a piercing or abnormality, painful
Define respiratory failure.
Inability to ventilate and oxygenate.
What is the mechanism that allows for gas exchange at the alveolar level?
What two techniques make for excellent BVM usage? What two ways can you hold the mask individually? What about with a partner?
- Two techniques: good seal, good technique
- Solo: EC and OK clamps
- Two person: Double EC and thumb method
- Always use two person ventilation if possible.
What is the primary purpose of performing cricoid pressure when using a BVM?
Prevent gastric distension.
How often do you ventilate a patient in respiratory arrest with a pulse? What is the rate per minute?
- Rate: 5-6 seconds
- Minute rate: 10-12 times per minute
What are possible causes of stridor?
What is the cause of rales/crackles
- Pulmonary edema
- Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
How do you check fremitus?
- Ask the patient to say "ninety-nine" several times in a normal voice
- Palpate using the ball of your hand
- You should feel the vibrations transmitted through the airways to the lung
- Increased tactile fremitus suggests consolidation of the underlying lung tissues
How do you change a regulator?
- Check the bottle, make sure it's oxygen.
- Check the expiration date.
- Look for cracks, deformities etc.
- Check the seal of the bottle.
- Check the o-ring on the regulator.
- Crack the bottle.
- Attach the regulator to the tank.
- Turn the tank on, two full turns to the left.
- Apply apparatus to the tank.
- Apply apparatus to the patient.
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