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is an emotional state that varies in intensity from mild irritation to intense fury and rage. It is accompanied by physiological and biological changes.
is a behavior intended to threaten or injure the victims security or self-esteem. It means to go against or to assault or attack. It is a response that aims at inflicting pain or injury on objects or persons.
occurs when a specific behavior is reinforced. A possitive reinforcement is a response to the specific behavior that is pleasurable or produces the desired result. A negative reinforcement is a response to the specific behavior that prevents an undesirable result from occuring.
Example of a positively reinforced
when a child wants something and has been told "no" by the parent, he might have a temper tantrum. If, when the temper tantrum begins the parent lets the child have what is wanted, the anger has been positively reinforced (or rewarded)
Example of a negatively reinforced
a mother asks the child to pick up her toys and the child becomes angry and has a temper tantrum. If, when the temper tantrum begins, the mother thinks, "oh, it's not worth all this." and picks up the toys herself, the anger has been negatively reinforced (child was rewarded by not having to pick up her toy
some research has implicated epilepsy of temoral and frontal lobe origin in episodic aggression and violent behavior.
violent behavior may be associated with hormonal dysfunction caused by Cushing's disease or hyperthyroidism. (Hormonal)
High rates of violence exists within the subculture of overty in the U.S. This has been attributed to lack of resources, breakup of families, alienation, discrimination and frustration.
Physical crowding may be related to violence through increased contact and decreased defensible space. Stong links between alcohol and violent behavior.
- amnestice disorder
Symptoms of delirium
usually begin quite abruptly and often are reversible and brief.
is a syndrome of acquired, persistent intellectual impairment with compromised function in multiple spheres of mental activity such as memory, language, visuospatial skills, emotion or personality, and cognition.
Symptoms of Dementia
are insidious and develop slowly over tie. In most clients, dementia runs a progressive, irreversible course.
is a disturbance of conscuiosness and a change in cognition that develop rapidly over short period.
characterized by an inability to learn new information despite normal attention and an inability to recall previously learned information.
Info on Dementia
because 10 to 15 % of all patients with dementia have a potentially reversible condition if treatment is initiated before permanent brain damange occurs.
- Dementia of the Alzheimer's type
- Vascular dementia
- Dementia due to HIV disease
- Head trauma
- Lewy body disease
- Parkinson's Disease
- Huntington's disease
- Pick's Disease
- Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
- general medical conditions
- substance-induced persisting dementia
- multiple etiologies
Stages of AD
- Stage 1 No apparent symptoms
- stage 2 Forgetfulness
- stage 3 Mild cognitive decline
- stage 4 mild to moderate cognitive decline: confusion
- stage 5 moderate cognitive decline: early dementia
- stage 6 moderate to severe cognitive decline:middle dementia
- stage 7 severe cognitive decline:late dementia
there is no apparent decline in memory
client begins to lose or misplace things, forgets names of people. Losses in short term memory are common. Client is aware of the decline and may feel ashamed becoming anxiouse and depressed.
there is interferance with work performance, which is noticeable by coworkers. The client may get lost when driving, concentration may be interrupted.
the client may forget major events in personal history, such as his own child's bday. Experiencing declining abilities to perform tasks such as shopping and managing finances. Depression and social withdrawal are common.
Lose the ability to perform some ADLs independly. They forget addresses, phone numbers and names of close relatives. Frustration, withdrawal, and self absorption are common.
unable to recall major life events or even the name of his spouse. Disorientation to surroundings is common, and the person ma be unable torecall the day, season, or year. Unable to manage ADLs withour assistance. Institutional care is usually required at this time.
unable to recognize family members. Bedfast and aphasic. Problems of immobility, such as decubitis and contractures, may occur. Client becomes more chairbound or bedbound. Bowel and bladder incontinence are present and caregivers need to complete ADLs for the person.
which of the following meds is used to treat Torette's disorder?
Absence of parental bonding
is least likely to predispose a child to Tourette's disorder
CNS Stimulants (methylphenidate[Ritalin])
is most commonly used for drug management of the hyperactive child.
is the activitie that would be most appropiate for the child with ADHD
When would the first signs of alcohol withdrawal symptoms be expected to occur?
Within 12 hours after the last drink
Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal include:
Diaphoresis, nasea and vomitting, and tremors
Which of the following medications is the physician most likely to order for Mr. White during his withdrawal syndrome(binge alcohol drinking)
An individual who is addicted to heroin is likely to experience which of the following symptoms of withdrawal?
Nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and diaphoresis