ENG221

Card Set Information

Author:
AminaRapunzil
ID:
105307
Filename:
ENG221
Updated:
2011-09-30 10:47:07
Tags:
Literary Terms
Folders:

Description:
Analyzing Poetry Specific Terms
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user AminaRapunzil on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Allegory
    A narrative in which all (or most of the events, locales, and characters correspond systematically to the events and characters in a completely different context. Some elaborate allegories can have several sets of correspondences simultaneously. The contexts within which the correspondences operate can include religious, moral, political, personal, or satiric.
  2. Allusion
    A figure of speech that makes a brief reference to a historical or literary figure, event, or object.
  3. Ballad
    A popular oral poetic (and later written form that relates a dramatic episode or story, often set to music and usually written in ballad meter, or fourteeners (a tetrameter line followed by a trimeter line, giving fourteen syllables total). Ballads often have refrains, which are stanzas that repeat. Some refrains change slightly each time they are repeated; these are called incremental refrains.
  4. Diction
    The term used to refer to the poet's choice of words in a poem. Words vary in their levels of abstraction, and we can speak of words as being concrete or abstract. Words also vary in their formality, and some genres, such as epic and tragedy, call for use of elevated rather than colloquial or plain language. Words also have specific or direct definitions (denotations), as well as implied meanings (connotations) associated with their use. Conntations as well as denotations of words can vary in meaning historically and geographically.
  5. Epic
    A long, narrative poem whose hero is a noble person, upon whose actions hinge the fate of a nation or a people. Consequently, epics tend to be o national or even of cosmic importance. The diction of the poem tends to be formal, elevated, and decorous. The setting of the epic is expansive and even global, as the hero embarks upon jounrneys that may take place over many years, often decades. The gods, referred toas the epic machinery, are interested in and take and active part in shapingthe events of the epic. Several epic conventions include the poet's invocation of the muse, a begining in medias res (in the middle of things), epic battles and/or epic games), catalogues (of ships, warriors, horses, etc.), delivery of set speaches, arming of the warrior, performance of religious rituals, and (sometimes) transmogrification of a dead hero to the celestial sphere.
  6. Figurative Language
    Name 11 Types
    • Occurs whenever a poet uses words in ways that deviate from their usual meaning.
    • A metaphor is a comparison between two things that are otherwise unrelated.
    • A simile is a kind of metaphor that uses like or as in the comparison.
    • A mixed metaphor occurs when the metaphor used produces an incongruous or impossible image; such metaphors are often unintentionally funny.
    • Metonymy occurs when the name of one thing is replaced by the name of something closely associated with it.
    • Synechdoche occurs when a part of something is used to describe the whole.
    • Overstatement (hyperbole) may be used to exaggerate what is being described; understatement describes something as less that it is. Both can be used ironically.
    • Personification occurs when a non-human animal, object, or abstraction is given human qualitites.
    • Apostrophe is a direct address to something not actually present or without actual human form; consequently, and apostrophe tends to personify its object.
    • Onomatopoeia is used to describe a word or words that sound like the thing they describe.
    • A pun is a word that refers to two very different meanings simultaneously.
    • A paradox is a statement that simultaneously contradicts itself and makes sense.
  7. Metaphor
    Comparison between two things that are othewise unrelated
  8. Simile
    A kind of metaphor that uses like or as in the comparison.
  9. Mixed Metaphor
    Occurs when the metaphor used produces in incongruous or impossible image; such metaphors are often unintentionally funny.
  10. Metonymy
    Occurs when the name of one thing is replaced by the name of something closely associated with it.
  11. Synechdoche
    Occurs when a part of something is used to describe the whole.
  12. Overstatement (hyperbole)
    May be used to exaggerate what is being described; understatement describes something as less that it is. Both can be used ironically.
  13. Personification
    Occurs when a non-human animal, object, or abstraction is given human qualitites.
  14. Apostrophe
    A direct address to something not actually present or without actual human form; consequently, and apostrophe tends to personify its object.
  15. Onomatopoeia
    Used to describe a word or words that sound like the thing they describe.
  16. Pun
    A word that refers to two very different meanings simultaneously.
  17. Paradox
    A statement that simultaneously contradicts itself and makes sense.
  18. Form
    The overall design of a poem, including the patterning of its rhyme, meter, and stanzas. Form can be open in form or closed (highly sructured). Blank verse is verse written in unrhymed iambic pentameter, it is the poetic form that is closest to spoken English. A couplet is two consecutive lines of peotry that rhyme. An heroic couplet consists of two rhyming lines of iambic pentameter. A tercet has three rhyming lines. A quatrain has four. Common losed forms include the sonnet, limerick, villanelle, sestina, odes, and ballad.
  19. Blank Verse
    Verse written in unrhymed iambic pentameter, it is the peotic form that is closest to spoken English.
  20. Couplet
    Two consecutive lines of peotry that rhyme.
  21. Heroic Couplet
    Two rhyming lines of iambic pentameter.
  22. Tercet
    Three rhyming lines
  23. Quatrain
    Four rhyming lines.
  24. Imagery
    Refers to words used to evoke a sensory experience, including sight, sound, smell, touch, and taste. Consequently, although image seems to refer to something that can be seen, imagery is also the term used to describe anything in a peom that appeals to the senses. Euphony refers to words that sound harmonious together. Cacophony refers to words that jar against one another.
  25. Euphony
    Refers to words that sound harmonious together.
  26. Cacophony
    Refers to words that jar against one another.
  27. Irony
    A way of speaking that implies a discrepancy between what is said and what is meant,or between what appears to happpen and what actually happens. Ironic speech consists of saying one thing and meaning another. Verbal irony occurs when the actual words used are ironic. Dramatic irony arises from the situation; frequently, this occurs when the audience knows or understands something that the characters in a drama do not. Cosmic irony occurs when an outside force, such as fate, seems to be operating despite the best efforts or intentions of the speaker or a character.
  28. Verbal Irony
    When the actual words used are ironic.
  29. Dramatic Irony
    Arises from the situation; frequently, this occurs when the audience knows or understands something that the characters in a drama do not.
  30. Cosmic Irony
    When an outsie force, such as fate, seems to be oprating despite the best efforts or intentions of the speaker or a character.
  31. Limerick
    Humorous (usually) poems cosisting of five anapestic lines that rhyme aabba; the a-lines are written in anapestic trimeter, whereas the b-lines are written in anapestic dimeter.
  32. Lyric
    Brief peom that expresses private thoughts and emotions, originally set to music (lyric is derived from te lyre, a musical instrument Greek poets used to accpmpany recitation). Ballads, sonnets, and odes are all forms of lyric poetry.
  33. Meter
    Stressed and unstressed syllables; the beat. Meter, rhyme, and subject together are used to identify form in poetry. Often, deviations from the expected form are more important to the poet's artistry than a peom's regularity.
  34. Metric Feet
    Name 6 Types
    • Iamb - unstressed syllable followed by stressed syllable
    • Trochee - stressed syllable followed by unstressed syllable
    • Anapest - two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable
    • Dactyl - one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables
    • Spondee - two succussive syllables with approximately equal stong stresses
    • Pyrrhic - two successive syllables with approximately equal light stresses
  35. Iamb
    Unstressed syllable followed by stressed syllable
  36. Trochee
    Stressed syllable followed by unstressed syllable
  37. Anapest
    Two unstresses syllables followed by a stressed syllable
  38. Dactyl
    One stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables
  39. Spondee
    Two successive syllables with approximately equal strong stresses
  40. Pyrrhic
    Two successive syllables with approximately equal ligt stresses
  41. Metric Lines
    Name 11 Types
    • Monometer - one foot
    • Dimeter - two feet
    • Trimeter - three feet
    • Tetrameter - four feet
    • Pentameter - five feet
    • Hexameter - six feet (a line of six iambic feet is called and Alexandrine)
    • Heptameter - seven feet (also called a fourteener [14 syllables], also called ballad meter)
    • Octameter - eight feet
    • End-stopped - a line of poetry which ends with a period or other punctuation
    • Enjambed - a line of poetry which carries over syntactically to the next line
    • Caesura - a strong pause in the middle of a line of poetry, often marked by punctuation
  42. Monometer
    One foot
  43. Dimeter
    Two feet
  44. Trimeter
    Three feet
  45. Tetrameter
    Four feet
  46. Pentameter
    Five feet
  47. Hexameter
    Six feet (a line of six iambic feet is called an Alexandrine)
  48. Heptameter
    Six feet (also called a fourteener [14 syllables], also called ballad meter)
  49. Octameter
    Eight feet
  50. End-stopped
    A line of poetry which ends with a period or other punctuation
  51. Enjambed
    A line of poetry which carries over syntactically to the next line
  52. Caesura
    A strong pause in th middle of a line of poetry, often marked by punctuation
  53. Ode
    • A relatively long, serious poem that discusses a noble subject in a thoughtful and dignified manner.
    • The ode is Greek in origin and was originally recited by a chorus. Pindaric odes (after the Greek poet Pindar) were meant to be performed by a chorus and originally consisted of three stanzas; the chorus moved in one direction for the first stanza (strophe), in the opposite direction for the second stanza (antistrophe), and remained stationary for the third stanza (epode). Such odes often resemble a meditative argument.
    • Horatian odes (named after the Roman poet Horace) were meant to be read and consisted of stanzas of equal length and with the same rhyme scheme and meter.
    • During the British Romantic period (1798-1820), the term ode was used by poets more to describe the meditative mood of a poem rather than its form; consquently, odes from this period tend to be irregualr both in meter and in rhyme.
  54. Pindaric Odes
    After the Greek poet Pindar. Meant to be performed by a chorus and oiginally consisted of three stanzas; the chorus moved in one direction for the first stanza (strophe), in the opposite direction for the second stanza (antistrophe), and remained statinary for the third stanza (epone). Such odes often resemble a meditative argument.
  55. Horatian Odes
    Named after the Roman poet Horace. Meant to be read and consisted of stanzs of equal length and with the same rhyme scheme and meter.
  56. Rhyme
    Name 10 Characteristics
    • Two or more words tat contain an identical or similar vowel soun, usually accented, with following consonant sounds (if any) identical as well.
    • Meter, rhyme, and subject are used to identify form in poetry. Often, deviations from the expected form are more important to the poet's artistry than a poem's regularity.
    • A rhyme scheme is the overall pattern of rhyme in a poem.
    • A pair of rhymed lines is called a couplet.
    • Alliteration refers to the repetition of simialr consonants sounds.
    • Repeated consonant sounds at the beginning of words is called initial alliteration.
    • Repeated consonant sounds in the middle or at the ends of words is called internal alliteration.
    • Retetititon of vowel sounds is called assonance.
    • Although definitions differ, slant rhyme can be said to occur in near rhymes (for instance, cat and cot, but not cat and coat).
    • Consonance is a repetition of consonants sounds.
    • A line is said to have a masculine ending when the line ends with a stressed syllable (either a one syllable word, or a ord of multiple syllables with emphasis onthe last syllable).
    • A line is said to have a feminine ending when the ine ends on an unstressed syllable.
  57. Rhyme Scheme
    The overall pattern of rhyme in a poem.
  58. Couplet
    A pair of rhymed lines.
  59. Alliteration
    The repetition of similar consonant sounds.
  60. Initial Alliteration
    Repeated consonant sounds at the beginning of words.
  61. Internal Alliteration
    Repeated consonant sounds in the middle or at the ends of words.
  62. Assonance
    Repetition of vowel sounds.
  63. Slant Rhyme
    Near rhymes such as cat and cot.
  64. Consonance
    Repetition of consonant sounds.
  65. Masculine Ending
    The line ends with a stessed syllable (either a one syllable word, or a word of multiple syllables with emphasis on the lst syllable).
  66. Feminine Ending
    The line ends with an unstressed syllable.
  67. Sestina
    A form written in six six-line stanzas. The end words in the first stanza are also the end words of the other stanzas, but they occur in a different order in each stanza, often following a fixed pattern. In the final envoy (last three lines) of the poem, the six end words are repeated again in any order.
  68. Sonnet
    • Closed poetic form that consists of 14 lines of iambic pentameter. Because Italian is an easier language to rhyme than English, Petrarchan (Italian) sonnets have tigter rhyme schemes than Shakespearean (English) sonnets.
    • Petrarchan (Italian) sonnets rhyme abba abba cdcdcd (with some variation in the last six lines).
    • Shakespearean (English) sonnets rhyme abab cdcd efef gg (with some variation).
    • Sonnets may be structured as an octave and a sestet or as thee stanzas of four lines, followed by a couplet. Structure and meaning often intersect in the sonner; a Shakespearean sonnet often changes the direction of its argument in the 9th line o 11th line.
  69. Symbol
    An object or action that carries with it meaning that goes beyond the object or action itself. Symbols are often specific to a particular culture rather than universally recognized. Allegory makes extensive use of symbolism to work on several levels at once.
  70. Villanelle
    A nineteen-line lyric with only two rhymes and with certain lines repeating in a specific pattern. Lines 1, 6, 12, and 18 are the same, as are lines 3, 9, 15, and 19. Lines 1 and 3 form a final couplet. The lines rhyme aba aba aba aba aba abaa

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview