Building Systems

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  1. Concrete
    • Cement (Kiln fired limestone with small amounts of clay and other materials that is ground into powder)
    • Water
    • Aggregate (Fine, coarse)
  2. Portland Cement Types
    • Type 1 - normal Portland cement
    • Type 2 - moderae Portland cement which is resistant to moderate sulfate action
    • Type 3 - high-early-strength
    • Type 4 - low-heat
    • Type 5 - sulfate-resistant
  3. Lightweight concrete
    made with expanded shale or slate aggregate
  4. Insulating concrete
    perlite aggregate or foaming agent
  5. Admixture
    Material added to concrete to alter its properties, ex: air-entraining agents, accelerators, surface-active agents or sufactants, water-reducing agents, superplasticizers, coloring agents, etc
  6. Air Entrainment
    • Adds air bubbles to the concrete's cement paste
    • Goal is to reduce the cracking of concrete during freeze/thaw cycles.
    • Increases workability and reduces segregation and bleeding in fresh concrete.
  7. Water Reducers
    • Decreases the water-cement ratio, decrease cement content, decrease the water needed to produce a certain slump, or increase slump.
    • Strength of the concrete increases when water reducers are added because water-cement ratio decreases.
    • Tendency to increase drying shrinkage
  8. Superplasticizers
    • Gives the concrete the ability to flow, increases the slump while maintaining cohesion
    • Good for thin-section placement, dense laid steel areas, underwater placements, etc
  9. Accelerators
    • Speeds up the rate of setting and the development of strength.
    • Most common: Calcium chloride.
    • Possible discoloration, shrinkage, reinforcement corrosion
  10. Retarders
    • Increase the setting time of concrete
    • Does not decrease the concrete temp, it increases the bleeding rate and capacity.
  11. Corrosion Inhibitors
    • Slows rust formation on reinforcing steel.
    • Commonly used in parking structures, marine structures and bridges where chloride salts is prevalent.
  12. Coloring Pigments
    • Added for aesthetic purposes and some safety apps.
    • no more than 10% of the weight, but less than 6% will not change the properties.
  13. Fly Ash
    • Glasslike particles resembles Portland cement
    • Increases the workability of concrete, acting like a lubricant.
    • Good for forming crevices and small openings
  14. Slag
    • Used as an aggregate in concrete.
    • Similar consistancy to sand.
  15. Concrete Reinforcement
    • Steel reinforcing bars
    • Steel mesh
    • Fiber reinforcement
  16. Rebar
    • Most commonly used in concrete
    • Heavy-duty reinforcement agains tension and flexure for concrete
    • To counter corrosion, rebar is available in other forms besides common steel.
    • 3/8"
  17. Concrete reinforcing fibers
    • Steel - strength
    • Glass - the most tensile strength
    • Synthetic/Plastic - most common, polypropylene
    • Natural - comparable strength but some are lacking
  18. Reinforcing bars
    • hot-rolled steel sections with ribs or deformations for better mechanical bonding
    • Sizes refer to diameter in 1/8"
  19. Steel Mesh
    • Not as heavy duty as rebar
    • Main purpose is to control concrete cracking, not eliminate it altogether.
Card Set:
Building Systems
2011-09-30 01:42:15
Material Types

Building Systems
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