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Cadoroso (dependency school) how does his view compare with that of the world bank, why do they think their way works?
EX of how this has worked
founder of dependency school - initially argued that only way to develop is to avoid capitalism, now says that full integration into world system and economy is necessary --> triumph of capitalism
- WB - countries must progress thorugh fully globalizing and integrating
- - works b/c there are positive trends towards faster growth and poverty reduction
- -growthis fastest in countries highly integrated in the global economy
Ex: East Asian Miracle - countries such as China that are now big players in international economy and improved livin standards
David Harvey and the Interconnectivity of the world at the time
David Harvey - modern capitalism has linked and integrated the world to such a profound level
- with modern communication and transportation, time and space are no longer insurmountable like in the past - burrs the geographic divide btw N and S
- world trade is huge and still growing, esp in developing countries, foreign direct investment also increasing in developing countries
The "catch" of integrating 3rd world into global economy
Argument of Amartya Sen, ex
Some countries that have high ratios of exports:GDP remain poor bc the products are cheap
Only 12 developing countries are really participating in the expansion of trade (china leading - some argue that growht is not sustainable, may lead to problems)
Growth in exports does not necessarily lead to poverty reduction
Globalizaion induced growth and poverty can coexist
Amartya sen: globalization is okay, but not the inequality in the sharign of its benefits
Ex: Africa is declining, amount of extremely poor ppl has doubled
Informational capitalism (Manuel Castells)...result of this?
world economics are no longer led by production...instead its the flow of strategic information, processes, and patents --> EXTREME growth in interconnectedness
now markets not states are making the decisions
Governments of weaker states are losing their influence internationally
Some effects of globalization, fears/thoughts?
- Is globalization another face of imperialism?
- -Income gap btw rich and poor countries continues to grow
- -Transnational corporations (TNCs) are gaining a ton of power ... compelling nations and sates to submit
- -Idea to reduce the dependecy on northern markets/investments
Feelings of BRIC countries on globalization
BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) want to renegotiate internatinoal economic integration and trade so Southern interest are more taken into account
Challenges to The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) or Southern Alliance - Bolivarian Alternative for the America (ALBA)
Brazil, Argentina and a few other countries wont sign FTAA - say its a structure of subordination to the US
Other states also challenging neo-liberal globalization (ALBA)
Global civil society
networks and movements who are "anti-globalization"... dont want to replace systems now just break down structures of domination and exclusion that marginalize the poor
World Social Forum (WSF)
calls for a fair trading system that guaratees full employment, food security, fair terms of trade local prosperity ... initiated in 2001 in Porto Alegre ... now more thn 500,000 social movements inthe world participate
Key component is democratization of economic development ... according to to the IFG (International Forum on Globalization) only possible through a "return t the local." political, economic and cultural decisions should be local not international