NUTR 550 exam 1 book questions

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NUTR 550 exam 1 book questions
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  1. Amylose
      • Linear fraction
      • Individual molecules seem to
      • form loose, rather flexible coil when dispersed in a solution
      • Corn starch ranges 24-28%
      • amylose

    • Amylopectin
    dendritic- branching
  2. Tapioca
    • root
    • starch derived from cassava, a tropical plant (only about 17% amylose)
  3. Starch granule
    • -concentric
    • layers of amylose and amylopectin molecules formed in the leucoplasts that are
    • held together by hydrogen bonding
  4. Hilum
    • innermost layer of the nucleus of a starch
    • granule
  5. Gelatinization
    • swelling
    • of starch granules and migration of some amylose into the cooking water when
    • starch is heated in water to thicken various food products
  6. Pasting
    • changes
    • in gelatinized starch, including considerable loss of amylose and implosion of
    • the granule
  7. Gelation
    the process of formation of a gel
  8. Gel
    • colloidal
    • system in which a liquid is dispersed in a solid
  9. Retrogradation
    • gradual increase of crystalline aggregates in
    • starch gels during storage, the result of amylose molecules rearranging in an
    • orderly fashion
  10. Dextrinization
    • hydrolytic breakdown of starch effected by
    • intense dry hear, a chemical change that produces dextrin's
  11. Endosperm
    • largest part of a cereal grain and the area
    • where starch is deposited
  12. Native starches
    • starches
    • that are used without being modified after they come from the plant
  13. waxy starch
    • starch
    • containing only amylopectin, the result of genetic research and breeding for
    • this composition
  14. high amylose starch
    • native
    • starch resulting from breeding plants to
    • produce starch that is exceptionally high in amylose and much lower than normal
    • in amylopectin
  15. edible films
    • thin films of gelatinized starch that can be
    • eaten; made by gelatinizing high amylose
  16. modified starch
    • starch
    • that has been altered from its native state by either physical or chemical
    • means
  17. Pre-gelatinized starch
    • starch
    • that has been altered from its native state by either physical or chemical
    • means
  18. thin boiling starch
    • disbranched
    • amylopectin molecules, produced by acid hydrolysis of starch, resulting in
    • starch that forms a thing sol when hot but a strong gel when cold; useful for
    • making gum drops
  19. oxidized-starch
    • thin-boiling starches produced by alkaline
    • (sodium hypochlorite) treatment but forming only soft gels
  20. cross-linked starches
    starch produced under alkaline conditions, usually in combination with acetic or succinic anhydride; notable as a thickener and stabilizing agent that undergoes minimal retro gradation
  21. Starch phosphates
    • starch
    • derivative made by reaction with sodium tripolyposphate or other phosphates to
    • achieve a thickener with excellent stability and clarity
  22. Resistant starches
    • starches that are not digested until they
    • enter the large intestine
  23. Freeze-thaw stability
    • ability
    • of a starch-thickened product to be frozen and thawed without developing a
    • gritty, crystalline texture
  24. hygroscopicity
    ability to attract and hold water, which is a characteristic of sugars to varying degrees
  25. degradation
    opening of the ring structure as the prelude to the breakdown of sugars
  26. caramelization
    • when
    • sugars heated to intense temperatures
    • (170°C or 338°F) chemical reactions begin
  27. Maillard
    reaction
    • non-enzymatic browning that occurs when a
    • protein and sugar are heated and stored together for sometime
  28. crystalline candies
    candies organized crystalline areas and some liquid (mother liquor)
  29. inversion
    formation of invert sugar by either boiling a sugar solution (especially with acid added) or adding an enzyme (invertase) to the cool candy
  30. Ripening
    • changes
    • that occur in crystalline candies when they are stored
  31. Amorphous candies
    • candies
    • that lack an organized, crystalline structure because of their very high
    • concentration of sugar or interfering substances
  32. amorphous glass
    hard amorphous candy
  33. turbinado sugar
    • light brown sugar from which only the surface
    • molasses is removed, resulting in a mild flavor
  34. brownulated sugar
    light brown sugar that can be poured
  35. jaggery
    • form
    • of brown sugar made in India from sugarcane or sap from the date palm
  36. corn syrup
    sweet syrup of glucose and short polymers produced by hydrolysis of corn starch
  37. high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
    • especially
    • sweet corn syrup made by using isomerase to convert some glucose to fructose
  38. Polyhydric
    alcohols (polyols)
    alcohols with several hydroxyl groups, which enables them to be used as sweeteners- for example- xylitol and sorbitol
  39. Aspartame
    very sweet, low-calorie dipeptide composed of phenylalanine and aspartic acid; used as a high-intensity sweetener
  40. dextrins
    • polysaccharides composed entirely of glucose
    • unit linked together and distinguishable from starch by shorter chain length
  41. dextrans
    • complex carbohydrates in
    • bacteria and yeast characterized by 1, 6--glucosidic linkages
  42. starch
    • complex
    • travel hydrate consistent of two fractions-amylose and amylopectin-both of
    • which are polymers of glucose going together by the elimination of water
  43. glycogen
    • complex carbohydrate that serves as the steward form of carbohydrate
    • in animals; glucose polymer with 1, 4--glucosidic linkages interrupted by 1, 6 linkages about every 8-12
    • units, resulting in bulky branching
  44. cellulose
    • complex
    • show hydrate composed of Lucas units joined together by 1, 4-Beta-glucosidic
    • linkages
  45. inulin
    • complex
    • carbohydrate that is a farmer of fructose
  46. pectic substances
    • group
    • of complex carbohydrates in fruit; polymers of galacturonic acid linked by 1,
    • 4-alpha-glycosidic linkages with varying degrees of methylation
  47. gums
    complex carbohydrates of plant origin usually containing galactose and at least one other sugar or sugar derivative but excluding glucose
  48. conduction
    • transfer
    • of energy from one molecule to the adjacent molecule in a continuing and
    • progressive fashion so that heat can pass from its source, through a pan and
    • ultimately throughout the food being cooked
  49. convection
    • transfer ofheat by the circulation of currents of hot air or liquid resulting from the
    • change in density when heated
  50. endothermic reaction
    • reaction in which heat is absorbed without an
    • increase in temperature of the reactants
  51. Glassy state
    • solid,
    • inflexible physical state formed at an extremely cold temperature and with
    • limited moisture is an amorphous solid; capable of changing to a rubbery or
    • somewhat elastic physical state
  52. glassy transition
    • change
    • of state from a solid glass to a super-cooled rubbery or viscous liquid
  53. Glass
    transition temperature (Tg)
    • temperature
    • at which an amorphous solid in the glassy state begins to transform to a less
    • ridged state
  54. secondarybonds
    • attractive
    • forces between atoms and functional groups that are less strong than the
    • bonding that occurs when electrons are shared (ex. Vander waal's forces and
    • hydrogen bonding
  55. vapor pressure
    • pressure exerted as molecules of a compound
    • attempt to be in the gaseous rater than the liquid state
  56. evaporation
    • escape
    • of liquid molecules into the surrounding atmosphere
  57. surface tenion
    • attraction between molecules at the surface or
    • a liquid
  58. interfacial tension
    • the
    • tendency for molecules at the surface of a liquid to remain with the liquid
    • rather than intersperse with molecules of a second adjacent liquid
  59. true solutions
    • dispersion
    • in which ions or molecules no larger tan one millimicron are dissolved in a
    • liquid (usually water)
  60. unsatuated solution
    • true solution capable of dissolving additional
    • solute at the temperature of the solution
  61. saturated solution
    • true solution containing as much solute in
    • solution as is possible to dissolve at that temperature
  62. supersaturated solutions
    • true
    • solution containing more solute than theoretically can be dissolved at that
    • temperature, a situation created by cooling as heated saturated solution
    • carefully
  63. colloidal dispersions
    • two-phase system containing at least one
    • colloid (substance measuring between 0.001 and 1 millimicron in diameter)
  64. discontinuous (dispersed) phase
    • phase
    • distributed in a discontinuous fashion, making it necessary to pass throughout
    • the system in the continuous phase without traversing any portion of the
    • dispersed phase
  65. gel
    • colloidal dispersion of a liquid dispersed in
    • a solid
  66. syneresis
    • weeping
    • or drainage of liquid from a gel
  67. sol
    • colloidal
    • dispersion of a gas dispersed in a liquid
  68. foam
    • colloidal
    • dispersion of a gas dispersed in a liquid
  69. suspensoid
  70. emulsion
    • colloidal
    • dispersion of a liquid in another liquid with which it is immiscible (not able
    • to be mixed)
  71. oil in water emulsion (o/w)
    • colloidal dispersion in which droplets of oil
    • are dispersed in water (ex. Mayonnaise)
  72. water in oil emulsion (w/O)
    • colloidal dispersion in which droplets of
    • water are dispersed in oil (ex. Butter)
  73. emulsifying agent
    • compound containing bot polar and nonpolar
    • groups so that t is drawn to the interface between the 2 phases of an emulsion
    • to coat the surface of the droplets
  74. perminant emulsion
    • emulsions containing an amount of emulsifying
    • agent sufficient to enable it to remain intact during ordinary handling and use
  75. semi-perminent emulsion
    • emulsion
    • with rather goo stability because of the viscous nature of the liquid
    • continuous phase
  76. temporary emulsion
    • emulsion
    • that have little emulsifying agent and it too fluid to restrict movement of
    • droplets; such instability requires tat the ingredients be shaken to form a
    • temporary emulsion immediately before use
  77. heat of fusion
    • heat
    • released when a liquid is transformed into a solid (aka heat of solidification)
  78. Heat of vaporization
    heat energy absorbed in the conversion of water into steam
  79. boiling point
    temperature at which vapor pressure of a liquid just exceeds atmospheric pressure
  80. Bound water
    water that I bound to other substances and no longer exhibits the flow properties and solvent capability commonly associated with water
  81. Resorption
    uptake of water
  82. desorption
    loss of water
  83. Hard water
    water containing salts of calcium and magnesium
  84. Soft water
    water treated with lime or ion exchange resins (complex sodium salts) to remove the metallic cations
  85. volumeter
    device for measuring volume of baked products, consist of a reservoir for storing the seeds, a transparent column for measuring volume, and a low compartment where the sample is placed
  86. Index to volume
    indirect means of comparing volume by measuring circumference of a cross section of the product
  87. Inblot
    in food research an inked impression that is made on paper by first pressing a cross section of the sample onto an ink stamp pad
  88. Plainmeter
    engineering tool designed to measure he distance as its pointer is traced around a pattern
  89. specific gravity
    ratio of the density of a food (or other substance) to the density of water
  90. pressed fluids
    juices from meat of other foods under pressure
  91. wettability
    ability of a cake or other food to absorb moisture during a controlled period of time high moisture retention means a cake is sufficiently moist
  92. drying oven
    slow method sometimes used to determine moisture content
  93. moisture content
    initial-dried/ initial weight) x 100 = 100 % moisture
  94. percent sag
    (depthin container - depth on plate/depth in container) x 100 = 100 %
  95. shearpress
    objective testing that measures compressibility, extrusion and shear of food samples
  96. compressmeter
    objective equipment that measures the force required to compress a food sample to a predetermined amount
  97. consistometer
    device for measuring the spread or flow of semisolid foods in a specified length of time
  98. line-spread test
    measurement of flow of a viscous liquid or semisolid food by determining the spread of a measured amount of sample in a specifed time at 90 degrees intervals on the template of concentric rings
  99. viscometer
    objective testing device for measuring visosity of liquids that flow on he basis of rotaitonal resistance or capillary action
  100. In house testing
    evaluations conducted within a food company prior to field testing and test marketing
  101. sensory evaluation
    a synonym for subjective evaluation; measurements determined by using the senses of sight, smell, taste, and sometimes touch
  102. subjective evaluation
    evaluation by a panel of individuals using a scoring system based on various characteristics that can be judge by using the sense
  103. objective evaluation
    use of mechanical devices to measure physical properties of a food
  104. aftertaste
    the aromatic message of flavor expression that lingers after food has been swallowed
  105. flavor enhancer
    additive used to improve food flavor without contributing a specific identifiable taste
  106. flavor potenatiator
    compound that enhances a flavor of other compounds without adding its own unique flavor
  107. threshold level
    • concentration of a taste compound at a barely
    • detectable level
  108. subthreshold level
    concentration of a taste compound at a level that is not detectable but can influence other taste perceptions
  109. Astringency
    puckery feeling in the mouth created by some compounds such as tannis
  110. Capsaicinoids
    capsaicin and related compounds responsible for fiery quality of chili and other peppers
  111. glucosinolates
    sulfur-containing irritants in mustard and horseradish
  112. Flavor
    the sensory message blending tasted and smell perceptions when food is in the mouth
  113. Number of chews
    • Subjective test in which a judge chews similar
    • bites of food to the same endpoint and records the actual number of chews required to reach that point
    • for each sample
  114. Descriptive flavor analysis panel (DFAP
    • thoroughly trained panel that works as a team
    • to describe precisely in words the flavor of a sample
  115. Flavor profile method
    • sensory
    • evaluation method; highly trained panelist talk together to develop a detailed
    • description of the flavor of a product
  116. profiling
    • detailed
    • word description developed b a highly trained panel against which subsequent
    • production is evaluated to maintain quality of production
  117. Duo-trio test
    • difference test in which two samples are
    • judge against a control to determine
    • which of the two samples is different from the control
  118. Affective testing
    • sensory
    • testing to determine acceptability or preference between products
  119. Paired comparison
    • difference test in which a specific
    • characteristic is to be and the sample with the greater level of the
    • characteristic is to be identified
  120. Hedonic scale
    • pleasure
    • scale for rating food characteristics
  121. functional food
    • food
    • that may provide health-promoting qualities beyond just the nutrients it
    • provides
  122. nutraceutical
    • sometimes used to describe not only functional
    • foods but also supplements and medicinal herbs
  123. Phytochemical
    • chemical
    • compound in plants that are important to promote healthful reactions in the
    • body but are not classified as nutrients required for life and growth
  124. prebiotic
    • healthful bacterial culture added during
    • manufacturing to enhance and/or modify a dairy product that does not survive in
    • the digestive tract; or a carbohydrate readily digestible by bacteria in the
    • intestine but not by humans
  125. probiotic
    • bacterial
    • culture added to a dairy product because of its health-promoting capability and
    • viability in the intestines

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