Path T2 tricks.txt

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kepling
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105327
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Path T2 tricks.txt
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2011-10-01 15:06:17
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Path T2 tricks
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  1. Main disease association w/ cystic medial degeneration?
    Marfan's syndrome: Elastic problem
  2. What cells do I-CAM & V-CAM adhere?
    Monocytes
  3. What causes stasis and swelling of the LE b/c of lack of mobility?
    Thrombophlebitis
  4. What is the main cause of primary HTN?
    renal retention of excess sodium = high BP
  5. What is the first step in atherogenesis?
    Endothelial cell damage
  6. What disease is present with red streaks in arm, swollen lymph nodes in axillary region, and recent onset?
    Lymphangitis
  7. Along with entering Macrophages and forming foam cells, what are two other jobs of oxidized LDL in plaque formation?
    Monocyte chemotaxis and adherence
  8. T/F fattys streaks cause disturbances in BF?
    F, they are a precursor of T-cells and monocytes. No epithelial changes have been made.
  9. What condition is complicated by cellulitis after mastectomy w/ lymph nodes?
    Lymphedema
  10. First cell on sight to start forming atherosclerosis?
    T-cell
  11. What vasculitis that can lead to blindness?
    Giant cell (temporal) arteritis: large, medium arteries of head, vertebral column and eyes
  12. which test is best for a predicter of atherosclerosis?
    CRP
  13. What is Anasarca?
    • Severe generalized edema
    • * from nephrotic syndrome, liver disease, heart disease, shock
  14. Primary and secondary causes of lymphedema?
    • Primary: Millroy disease
    • Secondary: Trauma, surgery, etc...
  15. What occurs in the lungs after a left ventricular failure after MI?
    venous congestion of capillary beds and increased hydrostatic pressure which causes release of transudate into alveolar space
  16. Function of VwFactor?
    adhere recruited plateletes to one another to initially stop bleeding and help with cascade start
  17. what is the major cause for pulmonary thromboembolism?
    venous stasis
  18. What genetic defect is most common and present in pts with common deep venous thrombosis issues?
    Factor V Leidin deficiency
  19. Main function of Antithrombin III?
    Inhibit thrombin to force more prothrombin time and slow down clotting
  20. What is the most common cause of arterial thrombosis?
    vascular endothelial damage
  21. Principle molecule released from Dense granules of platelets?
    ADP
  22. If an organ were to be spared from ischemic injury, which organ and why?
    Liver b/c of dual blood supply
  23. Common complication of Bioprosthetic valve?
    Stenosis or insufficiency
  24. What -itises are a result of rheumatic fever?
    pancarditis w/ endocarditis (vegetations), myocarditis (aschoff bodies), and pericarditis
  25. Name the four Pericarditis diseases and their associated disease outcomes?
    • 1) Serous = inflammation
    • 2) fibrinous = friction rubs & adhesions
    • 3) Prurulet = mediastinopericarditis, cosntructive pericarditis
    • 4) Caseous = chronic costructive pericarditis
  26. T/F Vasculitis often involve cardiac valves
    F
  27. What cardiomyopathy grows a more hypertrophied septum than ventricular wall?
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diastolic disease
  28. What two diseases most often form hermorrhagic pericarditis?
    TB & metastatic carcinoma
  29. What is the most important complication following a coronary thrombosis?
    Arrhythmias (fibrillations)
  30. At what pulse do you find bradycardia and tachycardia?
    • Bradycardia >100/min
    • Tachycardia <60/min
  31. What is the pacemaker node of the heart?
    SA node
  32. What is a main cause of LV hypertrophy and pulmonary edema?
    Systemic HTN
  33. What is the most common explanation of sudden unexplained death in young athletes?
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  34. T/F HTN causes aortic stenosis?
    F, it only causes LV hypertrophy
  35. What side of the heart does myocardial infarction generally affect?
    L, but then this damage can lead to R. Heart damage
  36. What type of pericarditis does SLE generally cause?
    Serous pericarditis
  37. Rheumatic fever will cause vegetations and stenosis of what two valves?
    Mitral & aortic
  38. A Patent Foramen Ovale is associated with what septal defect?
    ASD, L-R
  39. What septal defect is associated with Down's syndrome?
    AVSD
  40. What types of heart defects are associated with DiGeorge syndrome 22q11.2 deletion?
    R-L shunts (Tetralogy, truncus arteriosus, hypoparathyroidism)
  41. What heart disease is Williams syndrome associated with?
    Hypoplastic Left Heart syndrome
  42. Signs of Williams syndrome?
    • Supravalvular stenosis
    • Hypercalcemia
    • Elastin gene gone
    • Facial abnomalies (long mouth, pointed chin, epicanthial folds present, strabismus, etc...)
  43. Two most common causes of hemorrhagic pericardial effusion?
    tumor & TB
  44. What is the role of the NOTCH gene?
    modulation of vascular development (lack = cardiac issues like tetralogy of fallot)

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