Biology Ch 6 Vocab

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Biology Ch 6 Vocab
2011-09-29 23:04:54
biology vocab

Ch 6 vocab
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  1. Cell theory
    generalization that all living things are composed of cells, and that cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things
  2. Micrograph
    photograph of the view through a microscope
  3. Organelle
    part of a cell with a specific function
  4. Plasma membrane
    thin outer boundary of a cell that regulates the traffic of chemicals between the cell and its surroundings
  5. Nucleus
    in a cell, the part that houses the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA
  6. Cytoplasm
    region of a cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
  7. Cell wall
    strong wall outside a plant cell's plasma membrane that protects the cell and maintains its shape
  8. Prokaryotic cell
    cell lacking a nucleus and most other organelles
  9. Eukaryotic cell
    cell with a nucleus (surrounded by its own membrane) and other internal organelles
  10. Phospholipid bilayer
    two-layer "sandwich" of molecules that surrounds a cell
  11. Diffusion
    net movement of the particles of a substance from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
  12. Equilibrium
    point at which the number of diffusing molecules moving in one direction is equal to the number moving in the opposite direction
  13. Selectively permeable membrane
    membrane that allows some substances to pass more easily than others and blocks the passage of some substances altogether
  14. Passive transport
    diffusion across a membrane requiring only the random motion of molecules with no energy expended by the cell
  15. Facilitated diffusion
    pathway provided by transport proteins that helps certain molecules pass through a membrane
  16. Osmosis
    passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane
  17. Hypertonic
    having a higher concentration of solute than another solution
  18. Hypotonic
    having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
  19. Isotonic
    having a solute concentration equal to that of another solution
  20. Active transport
    movement of molecules across a membrane requiring energy to be expended by the cell
  21. Vesicle
    small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell
  22. Exocytosis
    process of exporting proteins from a cell by a vesicle fusing with the plasma membrane and spilling the proteins outside the cell
  23. Endocytosis
    process of taking material into a cell within vesicles that bud inward from the plasma membrane
  24. Nuclear envelope
    double membrane that surrounds a cell nucleus
  25. Nucleolus
    ball-like mass of fibers and granules in a cell nucleus
  26. Ribosome
    cluster of proteins and nucleic acids that constructs proteins in a cell
  27. Endoplasmic reticulum
    network of membranes within a cell's cytoplasm that produces a variety of molecules
  28. Golgi apparatus
    cellular organelle that modifies, stores, and routes cell products
  29. Vacuole
    membrane-bound sac that buds from the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi apparatus
  30. Lysosome
    membrane-bound sac containing digestive enzymes that can break down proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides
  31. Chloroplast
    organelle found in some plant cells and certain unicellular organisms where photosynthesis takes place
  32. Mitochondria
    cellular organelles where cellular respiration occurs
  33. ATP
    (adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
  34. Microtubule
    straight, hollow tube of proteins that gives rigidity, shape, and organization to a cell
  35. Microfilament
    solid rod of protein, thinner than a microtubule, that enables a cell to move or change shape
  36. Flagella
    long, thin, whip-like structures, with a core of microtubules, that enable some cells to move
  37. Cilia
    short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell's surface