Genetics Probability review.txt

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Anonymous
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105360
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Genetics Probability review.txt
Updated:
2011-09-30 00:39:28
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genetics
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probability
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  1. probability
    • P(E) = m/n
    • m= #desired outcomes
    • n= total # of outcomes
  2. Independence
    • if the occurrence of one event does not effect the probability of the other
    • ie: probability of first having a boy, then having a second child a boy (1/2)
  3. Addition rule
    • the "or" rule
    • P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)
    • ie: probability of rolling a 5 or 6 on die (1/6 + 1/6) = 2/6 = 1/3
  4. Multiplication rule
    • the "and" rule
    • for independent events..the probability of BOTH events occurring
    • ie: probability of A_bb from a AaBb x AaBb dihybrid cross
    • P(A_) * P(bb) = 3/4 * 1/4 = 3/16
  5. Binomial expansion
    • Used for calculating the probability of MULTIPLE outcomes occurring
    • 1. Calculate the # of outcomes that satisfy the question
    • 2. Probability of each permutation
    • P(outcome) = (n!/a!*b!)p^a * q^b
    • n = # of trials
    • a = # of p results
    • b = # of q results
    • p = probability of a
    • q = probability of b
    • ie: if Aa x Aa have 4 kids, what is the prob of getting 3 A_ and 1 aa?
    • P = (4!/3! * 1!) (3/4)^3 * (1/4)^1
    • P = 27/64
  6. Binomial Expansion w/MULTIPLE terms
    • P = (n!/a!b!c!d!)p^a * q^b * r^c * s^d
    • a+b+c+d = n
    • q+r+s+t = 1
  7. Outcomes
    • formula for how many outcomes are possible (ie: how many combinations of 2 hats you can pick out of a set of 5)
    • nCr = n!/(n-r)! * r!
    • n = total number
    • r = # of selections
    • outcomes = 5! / (5-2) * 2! = 10
    • ALTERNATE is Pascal's triangle:
    • go to the 5th row, and count from left to right starting from 0, 1, 2 (end at 2 since you are picking 2 hats)
  8. At Least One
    • probability of At least one occurrence
    • ie: probability of eldest girl of 3 children having AT LEAST ONE brother
    • P = P(1st brother) + P(2nd brother) - P(both being brothers)
    • P = 1/2 + 1/2 - (1/2*1/2)
    • P = 1 - 1/4 = 3/4= 75%
  9. Chi Squared test
    • 1. add all X^2 values (each value is a n)
    • X^2 = (O-E)^2/E
    • 2. calculate degrees of freedom
    • df = (n-1)
    • 3. look at chart and see if is Greater than 0.05
    • 4. If is greater than 0.05, then FAIL TO REJECT hypothesis (Ho)
    • 5. If is .05 or less, then REJECT Ho and ACCEPT Ha (alternate hypothesis)

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