Test #2

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Test #2
2011-10-01 23:10:16
Tissues Integumentary System

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  1. what are the 4 types of tissues?
    Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve
  2. What are the 3 primary germs tissues developed from?
    endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm
  3. mesoderm
    forms connective tissues and muscles
  4. ectoderm
    develops nervous tissue
  5. endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm
    all make up epithelial tissues
  6. Tight juctions
    are found where a leakproof seal is needed b/t cells (stomach and bladder)
  7. Adherens junctions
    a dense layer of proteins "plaque" adhesion belt that keeps tissues from separation as they stretch and contract (when food moves through the intestines
  8. Desmosomes
    as a "spot welds" hooks into the cytoplasm ( helps hold 2 cells together). Common among the epidermis and among cardiac muscle cells in the heart
  9. Hemidesmosomes
    are hlf-welds that join cells to the basement membrane
  10. Gap Junctions
    allows cells to communicate rapicly w/ one another. Are pores that allow small substances like ions to pass b/t cells (if cell gets sick/die it seals like a hatch to prevent damage to other cells)
  11. Epithelial tissues
    • -lines every body surface, all body cavities, the external and internal lining of many organs
    • -Protection, secretion, absorbtion
    • -no blood vessels and has alot of nerves
  12. Simple Squamous Epithelium
    a single layer of flat cells. In the air sacs of lungs, the lining of blood vessels & heart, and is epithelial membranes
  13. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    a single layer of cube shaped cells. Lining tubules of the kidneys and glands
  14. Simple Columnar Epithelium
    a single layer of column like cells, common in the diegestive tract. (w/ goblet cells-cilia, microilli, mucous)
  15. Goblet cells
    are simple columnar cells that have the ability to secrete muscous( cilia-fallopin tubes and lungs, microvilli-like sponges absorbs in digestive system, & mucous-slightly sticky fluid)
  16. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
    appears to have layers but doesnt, all cells are attached to the basement membrane in a single layer
  17. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    apical (free) surface squamous(flat) cells. SKIN
  18. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
    apicla surface: 2 or more layers of cube-shaped cells ( in sweat glands/ducts and part of the males uretha)
  19. Transitional Epithelium
    cells change shape depending on the state of stretch in the tissue (ex. bladder-in full bladder cells are flattened)
  20. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
    characteristic of the upper respiratory tract
  21. What are the 2 types of Glands?
    Endocrine & Exocrine
  22. Endocrine Gland
    secrete contents directly into blood, act on the entire body. Hormones (ex. thyroid and adrenal glands)
  23. Exodrine Glands
    secrete contents into a duct, act in a certain location (ex. sweat gland)
  24. What are the different types of exocrine glands?
    • Serous glands- produce and secrete sweat, milk, tears, digestive juices
    • Mucous glands- produce and secrete mucin which forms mucus with water
    • Mixed glands-salivary glands contain serous and mucous cells and produce a mixture of the two types
  25. What are the functional glands?
    Merocrine, holocrine, and apocrine
  26. Merocrine secretions
    the gland package secretions in secretory vesicles and releases it product by exocytosis. No part of the gland is lost or damaged. (Salivary gland)
  27. Apocrine secretions (combo of merocrine and holocrine)
    pack secritory vessicles in apicla region, the ends buds off leaving a milky ordorless fluid. (ex. mammary gland, )
  28. Holocrine secretions
    produced by rupture of the plasma membrane releasing the entire cellular contents and killing the cell(ex. sebaceous gland)
  29. Connective tissue
    • is usually highly vascular and supplied w/many nerves.
    • tendons have little blood and cartilage has no blood but are both C.T.
  30. 3 major components of C.T.
    Protein fibers and ground substance and sparse cells-surroundedby an lot of extracellular matrix
  31. Fibroblasts
    the most common C.T., they secrete protein fibers (collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers)
  32. Other common C.T. cells
    • Macrophages-immune cells
    • Adipocytes-store triglycerides
    • chondrocytes-make the various cartilaginous c.t.
    • Ostcocytes-make bone
    • Medlanocytes-pegment cells
    • mast cells- secrete histamine/stimulate inflation
  33. C.T. 3 Protein common fibers
    • collagen fibers-most commonstrong,strecth-resistant(bone, tendons, ligaments)
    • elastin fibers- rubber-like flexible protein(found in skin, blood vessel walls and lungs)
    • reticular fibers-form interwoven framwork(found around fat cells, nerve fibers, and smooth/skeletal muscle cells)
  34. ground substance
    supports and binds cells together, provides a medium for the exchange of materials, stores water, and actively influences cell functions
  35. Embryonic connective tissue
    • Mesenchyme-form into any tissue type stem cell
    • Mucous-umbilical cord
  36. Mature Connective tissue
    Loose, Dense, Cartilage, Bone, & Fluid
  37. Loose connective tissue
    • areolar c.t.-fills spaces b/t organs and under skin (around blood ves., nerves, body organs
    • adipose c.t.- deep to the skin & around organs & joints (fat cells)
    • reticular c.t.- reticular fibers & cells (found in liver, spleen, lymph nodes)
  38. Dense connective tissue
    • dense irregular-strength collagen fibers and a few fibroblasts ( found in the dermis of skin, and membrane capsules around organs)
    • dense regular-parallel bundles of collagen fibers (forms tendons, most ligaments)
    • elastic-branching elastic fibers and fibroblasts (found in lungs, trachea, & bronchial tubes)
  39. Cartilage connective tissue
    • Hyaline cartilage-most abundant, provides a smooth surface for joint movement (ends of long bones,parts of ribs, nose, etc)
    • Fibro cartilage-thick bundles of collagen fibers, strong & tough (in b/t vertebral of spine supports huge loads up and down the long axis of the body)
    • Elastic cartilage-less collagen more elastic fibers allows flexibility (make up malleabel part of external ear)
  40. Bone connective tiusse
    minreal reserve, protects organs, aids in movement (support the system and body)
  41. Fluid connective tissue
    • Blood-has many cells
    • Lymphs-
  42. Muscular tissue
    makes up large % of body's weight, create motion, maintain posture, move substances by peristaltic contractions, and generate heat through thermogenesis
  43. 3 types of muscular tissue
    • skeletal-in the skeleton, movement heat posture, striated multinucleated fibers parallel, voluntary
    • cardiac- heart, pump blood continuousl, striated one central nucleus, involuntary
    • visceral (smooth muscle)- G.I tract,blood vessels, eye, uterus.Peristal, blood pressure, pupil size,erects hairs.No striations one central nucleus involuntary
  44. nervous tissue
    • consist of nerve cells(neurons) and neuroglial cells.
    • central nervous system-brain and spinal cord
    • peripheral nervous system-peripheral nerves
  45. Neurons
    • Functional unit, conducts impulses from one cell to another.
    • most neurons have cell body, axon, dendrites, and axon terminals
    • Gather info at dendrites and process it in he cell body-->transmit info down their axon to the axon terminals
  46. Multipolar neurons
    have serveral dendrites and only one axon located throughout the brain and spinal cord.Majority of neurons in the human body are multipolar
  47. Bipolar neurons
    have one main dendrite and one axon. Used to convey special senses:sight, smell, heraring and balance. (in retina of the eye and inner ear, and olfactory)
  48. Unipolar Neurons
    contain one process which extends from the body and divides into a central branch that functions as an axon and as a dendritic root. Employed for sensory neurons that convey touch.
  49. Neuroglia
    support cells of the nervous system. Aid in conducting impulses
  50. Integument (skin)
    • Cutaneous membrane-epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
    • accerssory structures- hair, nails, exocrine glands
  51. Functions of the Integument
    • Protection-filters UV light, prevents loss of body fluids, inhibits invasion of bacteria
    • Thermal regulation-sweat glands/loss of water,alt, urea
    • Lipid storage-fats
    • Vitamin D synthesis-
  52. Main layers of skin
    • Epidermis-has keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium. Thick vs thin skin
    • Dermis- papillary layer (areolar c.t), reticular layer (dense irreg. c.t)
    • Hypodermis/Sub Q- loose c.t (adipose and areolar) connect underlying muscle and bone to dermis contains large blood vessels
  53. Stratum basale (deepest layer)
    • stem cells onthe basement membrane (mitotic)
    • continual cell division w/ daughter cells pushed to the next layer
    • contains melanocytes-melanin synthesis and storage
  54. Statum spinosum
    • 5-6 layers of cells w/ spiny cytoplasmic extensions (keratinocytes)
    • some cell division does occur in layer
    • contain langerhans cells:macrophages for innume response
  55. Stratum granulosum
    • 2-5 cell layers that produce keratin and keratohyalin
    • keratohyalin limits dehydration, cross links keratin fibers
    • organelles of celss start to disintegrate; apoptosis
  56. Stratum Lucidum
    • only in thick skin (palmar/plantar)
    • glassy layer of flat cells packed w/ keratin
  57. Stratum Corneum (superficial layer)
    • varying number of individual cell layers
    • tightly packed dead, keratinized cells (squames)
    • continuously shed-constantly replaced
  58. Skin color is derived from 3 pigments
    • Carotene-least common; orange-yellow pigment from diet
    • Hemoglobin-pigment of blood;varies w/ oxygen, color tinges epidermis for dermis
    • Melanin- primary determinant of variability in skin color, produced by melanocytes in stratum basale
  59. Apocrine sweat gland (skin)
    • found in axilla, anal, groin regions, & around nipples
    • secrete a sticky, cloudy & odorous secretion onto hair follicles
    • secretion provides nutrient source for bacteria
  60. Merocrine/Eccrine sweat gland
    • widely scattered over body surface
    • secrete water, electrolytes, and metabolites onto the surface
    • evaporation cools skin and body
  61. Sebaceous sweat gland
    • produce sebum into hair follicle to lubricate hair and skin
    • most active late in fetal development and puberty
  62. Ceruminous gland
    • located in external ear
    • secretes cerumen (ear wax)
  63. Dermis
    • Papillary layer-more pronounced on palms and soles to form surface ridges on epidermis; contain cappillary beds and nerve endings
    • Reticular layer-deepest layer of dense irregular c.t; bundles of collagen fibers extend through reticular layer & hypodermis;elastin in layer affected by UV, age, hormones
  64. Errector pili muscles
    casues the hair to stand up known as googe bumps
  65. Nails
    • composed of heavily conrnified cells that develop from specialized stratum corneum called nail matrix
    • protect distal phalanges from damage/distortion during manipullation activity
  66. Hair
    extends across entire body except palmar/plantar surfaces, lips, and genitalia
  67. Hair Follicle
    • Root- part of the hair set in the follicle
    • Papilla-small projection at bulb; provides blood suppy
    • Shaft- keratin in 3 layers: Medulla(inner)-soft keratin, Cortex-hard keratin, Cuticle(outer)-scales of keratin