Genetics Probability review.txt

 The flashcards below were created by user rincrocci on FreezingBlue Flashcards. probability P(E) = m/nm= #desired outcomesn= total # of outcomes Independence if the occurrence of one event does not effect the probability of the otherie: probability of first having a boy, then having a second child a boy (1/2) Addition rule the "or" ruleP(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)ie: probability of rolling a 5 or 6 on die (1/6 + 1/6) = 2/6 = 1/3 Multiplication rule the "and" rulefor independent events..the probability of BOTH events occurringie: probability of A_bb from a AaBb x AaBb dihybrid crossP(A_) * P(bb) = 3/4 * 1/4 = 3/16 Binomial expansion Used for calculating the probability of MULTIPLE outcomes occurring1. Calculate the # of outcomes that satisfy the question2. Probability of each permutationP(outcome) = (n!/a!*b!)p^a * q^bn = # of trialsa = # of p resultsb = # of q resultsp = probability of aq = probability of bie: if Aa x Aa have 4 kids, what is the prob of getting 3 A_ and 1 aa?P = (4!/3! * 1!) (3/4)^3 * (1/4)^1P = 27/64 Binomial Expansion w/MULTIPLE terms P = (n!/a!b!c!d!)p^a * q^b * r^c * s^da+b+c+d = nq+r+s+t = 1 Outcomes formula for how many outcomes are possible (ie: how many combinations of 2 hats you can pick out of a set of 5)nCr = n!/(n-r)! * r! n = total numberr = # of selectionsoutcomes = 5! / (5-2) * 2! = 10ALTERNATE is Pascal's triangle:go to the 5th row, and count from left to right starting from 0, 1, 2 (end at 2 since you are picking 2 hats) At Least One probability of At least one occurrenceie: probability of eldest girl of 3 children having AT LEAST ONE brotherP = P(1st brother) + P(2nd brother) - P(both being brothers)P = 1/2 + 1/2 - (1/2*1/2)P = 1 - 1/4 = 3/4= 75% Chi Squared test 1. add all X^2 values (each value is a n)X^2 = (O-E)^2/E2. calculate degrees of freedomdf = (n-1)3. look at chart and see if is Greater than 0.054. If is greater than 0.05, then FAIL TO REJECT hypothesis (Ho)5. If is .05 or less, then REJECT Ho and ACCEPT Ha (alternate hypothesis) Authorrincrocci ID105402 Card SetGenetics Probability review.txt Descriptionprobability Updated2011-09-30T15:47:37Z Show Answers