Skin Notes

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  1. Epidermis
    • *Outermost layer
    • *Thickest at the palms and soles of feet
    • *Made of squamous epithelial cells
    • *Thinnest over anterior parts of trunk, eyelids, and eardrums
    • *Made up of 5 layers
  2. What are the 5 layers of the epidermis?
    • *Stratum Corneum(horny outer layer)
    • *Stratum Lucidum
    • *Stratum Granulosum
    • *Stratum Spinosum(prickly looking cells)
    • *Stratum Basale(also called germinitivum)
  3. What is the stratum corneum?
    • *Made of dead cells and keratin
    • *Constantly shed and replaced with new dead cells
    • *20% water
    • *Like scales and serve as barrier to light, heat, and bacteria
    • *Horny outer layer
  4. What is the stratum lucidum?
    • *1-5 layers of cells
    • *Made of dead or dying cells without nuclei
    • *Found at soles of feet and palms and filled with eleidin(protein)
  5. What is the straturm granulosum?
    • *2-5 cell layers thick
    • *Produces keratin(also protein)
  6. What is the stratum spinosum?
    • *Polyhedral shaped
    • *Some of these cells can still undergo mitosis but not many
    • *Prickly looking cells
  7. What is the stratum basale?
    • *Deepest, most important layer
    • *These cells rise to become the other cell layers
    • *Contains pigments melanin and carotin
    • *Also called germinitivum
  8. What is the dermis?
    • *Under the epidermis
    • *Made of connective tissue and white or yellow elastic fibers
    • *Contains: blood vessels, hair follicles, and sweat glands
  9. What are the skin appendages?
    • *Hair
    • *Nails
    • *Glands
    • *Sweat glands
  10. Describe the hair:
    • *Covers entire body except for soles of feet, palms, and genitalia
    • *2 parts: Cuticle(outermost), cortex(main part, made of elongated cells), medulla(made of multi sided cells; also makes cells), shaft/follicle(includes hair shaft, both upper & loer parts)
  11. Describe the nails:
    • Made of hard keratin:
    • *Takes 3-6 months to replace a fingernail
    • *Takes up to 8 months to replace a toenail
  12. What are the sebaceous glands?
    • *Contain an oily substance called sebum
    • *Controlled by the endocrine system and the sebum increases in teenagers and pregnant
    • *Acne and oily skin stop later in life and the skin dries out
  13. What are the sweat glands?
    • *Found in most parts of the skin except for the lips and penis
    • *Palms have about 3,000 sweat glands per square inch
    • *NaCl is the main substance in sweat, but it also has uric acid, urea, amino acids, ammonia, water, etc.
  14. What are some functions of the skin?
    • *Sensation
    • *Protection
    • *Temperature regulation
    • *Secretion
    • *Chief means of obtaining vitamin D
    • *Important part of the immune system
  15. Describe sensation:
    (Skin function)
    Feels heat, pressure, wounds, etc.
  16. Describe protection:
    (Skin function)
    • *Keeps out bacteria
    • *Keeps in body parts
    • *Largest sensory organ in/on our body
  17. Describe temperature regulation:
    (Skin function)
    • *Controls H2O loss
    • *Controls heat loss
  18. Describe secretion:
    (Skin functions)
    • *Has antifungal properties
    • *Keeps good texture on skin
Card Set:
Skin Notes
2011-09-30 16:43:40
Anatomy Genetics

CH. 6 Notes
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