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- *Outermost layer
- *Thickest at the palms and soles of feet
- *Made of squamous epithelial cells
- *Thinnest over anterior parts of trunk, eyelids, and eardrums
- *Made up of 5 layers
What are the 5 layers of the epidermis?
- *Stratum Corneum(horny outer layer)
- *Stratum Lucidum
- *Stratum Granulosum
- *Stratum Spinosum(prickly looking cells)
- *Stratum Basale(also called germinitivum)
What is the stratum corneum?
- *Made of dead cells and keratin
- *Constantly shed and replaced with new dead cells
- *20% water
- *Like scales and serve as barrier to light, heat, and bacteria
- *Horny outer layer
What is the stratum lucidum?
- *1-5 layers of cells
- *Made of dead or dying cells without nuclei
- *Found at soles of feet and palms and filled with eleidin(protein)
What is the straturm granulosum?
- *2-5 cell layers thick
- *Produces keratin(also protein)
What is the stratum spinosum?
- *Polyhedral shaped
- *Some of these cells can still undergo mitosis but not many
- *Prickly looking cells
What is the stratum basale?
- *Deepest, most important layer
- *These cells rise to become the other cell layers
- *Contains pigments melanin and carotin
- *Also called germinitivum
What is the dermis?
- *Under the epidermis
- *Made of connective tissue and white or yellow elastic fibers
- *Contains: blood vessels, hair follicles, and sweat glands
What are the skin appendages?
- *Sweat glands
Describe the hair:
- *Covers entire body except for soles of feet, palms, and genitalia
- *2 parts: Cuticle(outermost), cortex(main part, made of elongated cells), medulla(made of multi sided cells; also makes cells), shaft/follicle(includes hair shaft, both upper & loer parts)
Describe the nails:
- Made of hard keratin:
- *Takes 3-6 months to replace a fingernail
- *Takes up to 8 months to replace a toenail
What are the sebaceous glands?
- *Contain an oily substance called sebum
- *Controlled by the endocrine system and the sebum increases in teenagers and pregnant
- *Acne and oily skin stop later in life and the skin dries out
What are the sweat glands?
- *Found in most parts of the skin except for the lips and penis
- *Palms have about 3,000 sweat glands per square inch
- *NaCl is the main substance in sweat, but it also has uric acid, urea, amino acids, ammonia, water, etc.
What are some functions of the skin?
- *Temperature regulation
- *Chief means of obtaining vitamin D
- *Important part of the immune system
Feels heat, pressure, wounds, etc.
- *Keeps out bacteria
- *Keeps in body parts
- *Largest sensory organ in/on our body
Describe temperature regulation:
- *Controls H2O loss
- *Controls heat loss
- *Has antifungal properties
- *Keeps good texture on skin