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how did the supreme court rule in the case of mullouch v maryland and why?
the supreme court ruled against maryland arguing that "the power to tax is the power to destroy"
what is nullification? what ended the practice?
voiding a federal law that the states believed violated the constitution; ended the civil war
what is dual federalism? how was it applied to commerce?
national government is supreme in its sphere, especially national security and foreign policy; the states in most everything else. spheres must be kept separate. ended by gitlow v new york
how has the demise of dual federalism affected the powers of congress?
congress can pass a law regulating any kind of economic activity anywhere
how much money was spent on grants in aid in 1915? in 1937?
- 1915: $6 million
- 1937: $300 million
what happened to the amount of money in grants in aid between 1960 and 1975 (the great society)?
what are the five largest programs receiving grant money?
- highway construction
- unemployment benefits
- housing assistance
- aid to families with dependent children (welfare)
list four reasons for the growth in the number of grants
- the money was there (no deficit)
- income tax (16th amendment)
- feds could print money as needed
- federal money seemed like it was free to the states
how is american federalism affected bby the issuance of grants in aid?
every state wants money from every federal program
what important change concerning grants occurred during the 1960s?
federal governement took control of it
how had the amount of aid given to the states changed between 1927 and 1980?
in 1927 federal aid made up about 2% of an average state's budge but by 1980 that same aid made up 30%