PSYC300 Exam 1

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PSYC300 Exam 1
2011-09-30 13:27:33

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  1. applied research
    research designed to investigate issues that have implications for everyday life and toprovide solutions to real-world problems.
  2. basic research
    research designed to answer fundamental questions rather than to address a specific real-world problem.
  3. behavioral research
    research designed to study the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of human beings and animals
  4. converging operations
    using more thanone measurement or research approach to study a given topic, with the hope that all of the approaches will produce similar results.
  5. correlational research
    research that involves the measurement of two or more relevant variables and as assessment ofthe relationship between or among those variables
  6. data
    information collected through formal observation or measurement
  7. descriptive research
    researchdesignated to answer questions about the current state of affairs.
  8. Empirical
    based on systematic collection of data
  9. experimental research
    research that includes the manipulation of a given situation or experience for two or more groups of individuals who are initially created to be equivalent, followed by a measurement of the effect of that experience.
  10. Facts
    information that is objectivelytrue.
  11. hindsight bias-
    the tendency to think that we could have predicted something that we probably could not have predicted.
  12. objective-
    free from personal bias or emotion
  13. Pearson r-
    a statistic used to assess the direction and the size of the relationship between two variables
  14. quantitative research-
    descriptive research that is focused on observing and describing events as they occur, with the goal of capturing all the richness of everyday behavior
  15. research design-
    a specific method used to collect, analyze, and interpret data.
  16. qualitative research-
    descriptive research that is focused on observing and describing events as they occur, with the goal of capturing all of the richness of everyday behavior
  17. research report-
    a document thatpresents scientific findings using a standardized written format
  18. scientific method-
    the set of assumptions, rules, and procedures that scientists use when conducting research
  19. values-
    personal beliefs of a person
  20. variable-
    any attribute that can assume different values
  21. abstract-
    written summaries of research reports
  22. deductive method-
    the use of a theory to generate specific ideas that can be tested through research
  23. dependent variable-
    the variable that is caused by the independent variable
  24. falsifiable-
    a characteristic of a theory or research hypothesis such that the variables of interest can beadequately measured and the expected relationship between the variables can beshown through research to be incorrect.
  25. General-
    in relation to a theory, summarizing many different outcomes
  26. independent variable-
    the variable that is manipulated by the researcher
  27. inductive method-
    the observation of specific facts to get ideas about more general relationships among variables.
  28. Laws-
    principles that are so general that they areassumed to apply to all situations.
  29. Parsimonious-
    in relation to a theory, providing the simplest possible account of an outcome or outcomes.
  30. research hypothesis-
    a specific and falsifiable prediction regarding the relationship between or among two or morevariables.
  31. Tautological-
    a characteristic of a theory or research hypothesis such that it cannot be dis-confirmed
  32. Theory-
    an integrated set of principles that explains and predicts many, but not all, observed relationships within a given domain of inquiry.
  33. Debriefing-
    information given to aparticipant immediately after an experiment has ended that is designed to both explain the purposes and procedures of the research and remove any harmful after effects of participation.
  34. Deception-
    the practice of not completely and fully informing research participants about the nature of a research project before they participate in it; sometimes used when the research could not be conducted if participants knew what was really being studied.
  35. informed consent-
    the practice of providing research participants with information about the nature of the research project before they make a decision about whether or not to participate
  36. institutional review board (IRB)-
    a panel of at least five individuals, including at least one whose primary interest is in nonscientific domains, that determines the ethics of proposed research
  37. process debriefing-
    a debriefing that involves an active attempt by an experimenter to undo any changes that might have occurred in participants during the research
  38. scientific fraud-
    the intentionalalteration or fabrication of scientific data
  39. simulation study-
    research in which participants are fully informed about the nature of the research and asked tobehave “as if” they were in a social setting of interest
  40. suspicion check-
    one or more questions asked of participants at the end of research to determine whether they believed the experimental manipulation or guessed the research hypothesis.