Cell Biology Exam 1

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tcampb616
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105422
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Cell Biology Exam 1
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2011-09-30 13:06:53
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Cell Bio part one test exam
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exam study guide
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  1. T/F: Human somatic cells contain diploid number of chromosomes.
    nucleotides.
    True.
  2. T/F: Human somatic cells can divide continuously in adult body.
    False
  3. T/F: Human somatic cells are usually spherical in shape.
    False
  4. T/F: Human somatic cells usually do not contain DNA with the same number and sequence nucleotides.
    False
  5. T/F: Prokaryotes secrete hormones in the bloodstream of hosts.
    False
  6. T/F: Prokaryotes divide by mitosis.
    False
  7. T/F: Prokaryotes have well defined organelles.
    False
  8. T/F: Prokaryotes do not have membrane bound organelles characteristic of eukaryotic cells.
    True.
  9. salts and ions are important because...
    physiologic processes
  10. the central dogma of molecular biology is DNA to RNA to polypeptideindicated?
    everything, glow of genetic material
  11. the best light microscope has a resolving power of about
    0.2 micrometers
  12. the best transmission electron microscope has a resolving power of about
    2-3 angstums
  13. All modern cells are believed to be originated from
    pre-existing cells, common ancestor
  14. Imagine a mouse with a genetic defect that prevents its mitochondria from funtioning properly. The mouse is likely to experience...
    anaerobic respiration; since mitochondria is the site of energy production, mouse will feel weak or tired.
  15. Potential side effects of anabolic steroids include the following...
    • male- womanizing features
    • femaile- masculine features
    • baldness, stroke
  16. cell theory
    • all living things are composed of cells
    • cells arise from other cells
    • cells are the site of all metabolic reactions in an organism
    • cells contain hereditary material (genes)
  17. Autotrophs
    make their own food
  18. heterotrophs
    must consume in order to gain energy
  19. prokaryotic cells differ from eukaryotic cells in that
  20. plant vs animal cells
    • cell wall vs cell membrane
    • chloroplasts
  21. What type of bond links the two hydrogen atoms?
    H+H--> H:H
    nonpolar covalent bond
  22. Cells that continue to proliferate in the adult human body...
    skin, stomach lining, intestinal lining, germ cells in males
  23. Name some cells that rarely proliferate.
    nerve cells, muscle cells
  24. T/F: Radioactive isotopes are often used as markers in biomedical research.
    True
  25. T/F: Radioactive isoptopes usually absorb energy.
    False.
  26. T/F: Radioactive isotopes are mutagens and may increase teh incidence of certain human cancers.
    True
  27. T/F: Radioactive isotopes have teh same number of protons and electrons, only the number of neurtons vary.
    True
  28. Name the two processes involved in the formation of two daughter cells from one parent cell.
    Mitosis and Cytokinesis
  29. What is the difference between mitosis and cytokinesis?
    cytokinesis is the division of ctoplasm, while mitosis is the duplication and division of nuclear content
  30. Is this correctly matched?
    carbohydrate and fructose
    yes
  31. Is this correctly matched?
    DNA and Uracil
    No
  32. Is this correctly matched?
    lipid and glycerol
    yes
  33. mycoplasma (pplo) differ from viruses in that they...

    [pleuropneumonia-like organism (pplo)]
    viruses do not have metabolic machinery and connot reproduce on their own, only have DNA or RNA, not both; mycolplasmas have all.
  34. Which of the following is not a membrane bound protein?
    recognition protein
    adhesion protein
    cytoskeleton
    transport
    receptor
    cytoskeleton
  35. which tissue covers animals body surfaces
    epithelial
  36. microfilaments
    contractile proteins, plays a role in shape change and cell motility
  37. microtubules
    elongation, structural proteins
  38. if lysosomes are busted inside a cell, the immediate result is likely to be...
    the death of that cell
  39. Why are mature human rebd blood cells discoidal instead of spherical?
    • lack of nucleus and organelles
    • need flexibility to fit in capillaries
    • optimal for oxygen exchange
  40. cyclic AMP
    most common secondary messenger
  41. ATP
    adenosine triphoshate, energy
  42. cytochrome
    membrane bound hemoproteins taht help carry out electron transport
  43. hemoglobin
    oxygen and carbon dioxide carrier but like oxygen more, found in red blood cells, contain iron making cells red
  44. why do people without enough iron in their diet feel weak and tired?
    without iron, hemoglobin is not produced, therefore less oxygen can attach to red blood cells, this affects cellular respiration and therefore enegy production.
  45. what is the main function of polysaccharides in living animal cells.
    energy storage
  46. T/F:Cancer cells are loosely adherent to other cels
    True
  47. T/F: Cancer cells resemble embryonic cells in many aspects
    True
  48. T/F: Cancer cells do die but at a slower rate
    True
  49. T/F: Cancer cells cannot recognize other cells of tehir own kind
    True
  50. Atom
    the smalles unit of an element that still retains the chemical properties of the substances
  51. molecule
    atoms held together by chemical bonds
  52. organic compound
    compounds composed of carbon
  53. chromatin
    chromosomal material when cell is not dividing
  54. chromatid
    chromosomal material when cell is dividing
  55. T/F: Proteins may be denatured by extremes of heat or pH
    true
  56. T/F: Proteins may function as enzymes
    True
  57. T/F: Their specificity depends at least in part on the way in which they are folded
    true
  58. T/F: Proteins are composed of polynucleotide chains
    False
  59. what are the major fungtions of the ECM
    rich in glycoproteins and glycolipids, involved in cell processes (cell recognition, cell adhesion)
  60. Cell
    structural and functional unit of an organism, smallest unit considered to be alive
  61. tissue
    same tupes of cells grouped together with common function
  62. organ
    two or more tissues together functioning as one
  63. name the 11 organ systems
  64. viruses are not considered living matter mainly because...
    they do not have metabolic machinery
  65. lipids
    fatty acids, glycerol
  66. carbohydrates
    many monosaccharides linked together
  67. nucleic acid
    nitrogen base, pentose, phosphate
  68. proteins
    amino acids
  69. How does the DNA of different somatic cells in your body compare?
    All exactly the same
  70. Gene
    hereditary material that codes for specific proteins
  71. ion
    charged atom, caused when an atom loses or gains an electron
  72. Stem Cells
    undifferentiated cells
  73. At which part of the molecule do two amino acids differ?
    the R-group or the functional group
  74. carotenoids
    major constituent of animal and plant pigments, pigment
  75. cholesterol
    substrate for synthesis of sex hormones
  76. prostaglandins
    regulation of inflammation and blood clotting
  77. vitamin d
    calcification of bone matrix
  78. bile salts
    break down of fats in human intestine, emulsification of fats
  79. androgen
  80. phospholipids
    major constituent of the cellular membrane
  81. name the conjugated protein: eukaryotic comosome
    nucleoprotein
  82. name the conjugated protein: extracellular material
    glycoprotein
  83. name the conjugated protein: cytochrom
    chromo protein
  84. name the conjugated protein: mitochondrial membrane
    lipoprotein
  85. heparin
    anticoagulant substance
  86. glycogen
    insoluble glucose polymer that is produced in animals
  87. cellulose
    tough insoluble constituent of plant cell walls
  88. starch
    major form of storage carbohydraates in plants
  89. chitin
    a supporting substance found in insects
  90. mucoides
    substances secreted in saliva and gastric mucosa
  91. insulin
    regulatory
  92. antibody
    protective
  93. hemoglobin
    transport
  94. collagen
    structural
  95. albumen
    storage
  96. myglobin
    transport
  97. growth hormone
    regulatory
  98. cell surface receptor
    membrane
  99. plant seeds
    storage
  100. actin
    contractile
  101. microtubles
    structural
  102. microfilaments
    contractile

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