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Multi-polar world, organized around at least 4 poles (what are they)
Emergence of a triad of power after successive versions of imperialism (which 3 countries)
however, what is the problem with this view and its use in predicting future powers?...
4 poles: US, Europe, Japan, and China
Emergence of triad among US, European Union, and Japan
1. This vision doesnt take into account the policies that Washington deploys to undermine the diverse projects that might eventually threaten its hegemony
- 2. Its problematic to predict the emergence of new economic powers simply on the basis of economic growth rates
- - consequences for the planets ecological equilibrium and the pursuit of growth also has the clear potential to trigger conflict with the countries of the triad
Contrasting legacies of the chinese revolution - Exceptional trajectory
3 decades of Maoism produced an exceptional level of growth - would not have been possible without the economic, political, and social foundations that were laid down in the preceding period
Contrasting Legacies of the Chinese Revolution - Workshop of the World or market socialism...???
- peripheral capialism
- market socialism
while economic power formerly rested on the world's great powers, today the imperialism of the triad is based on new monopolies, notably the control of technology, the flows of finance, access to natural resources, weapons
- - China, India and Brazil are building tomorrow's peripheral capitalism - a threat to the triad?
- - China is already the workshop of the world
-In contrast, a path toward a socialist alternative will be longer and different from the paths imagined by the Second and Third Socialist International
- Market socialism
- (the attempt to reconcile features of the socialist poltical structures, such as a one party state and a concern for social justice, with a capitalist economy) could then consititute the first phase
Lenin vs Marxist ideology
Marxism ideology - linear vision of history - all societies have to pass through before being capable of aspiring to socialism
Lenin ideology - had a vision that placed more emphasis on the transformation of eastern rebellions into revolutions
Russian revolution (led by whom, effect on ppl and peasantry, economy?)
- effect on peasantry, context -what allowed them to either unify or caused them to fall apart?
- how different from china?
- Russian revolution - lead by a party that was deeply rooted inthe working class and radical "intelligentsia"
- - fulfilled the dream of Russian peasants to become landowners. However, the market itself inevitable increased eocnomic and social differentiation within the peasantry.
- Chinese revolution
- - guaranteed strong alliance btw the poor and middle peasantry
- - War of resistance against japanses aggression allowed the formation of a united front led by the communists
- different from russia inthat a radical peasant revolution rejected the very idea of private property in land and replaced it withthe guarantee of equal access to land for all peasants --> obstacle of agrarian capitalism.
The success of Maoism
-collectivization not imposed through violence like Stalinism was
- -goal of relative equality in the distribution of incomes between peasants and workers within these classes and between them
- -achievements laid down the ground for subsequent development successes of post-Maoist china from 1980
- - contrasted with development choices taken by the Soviet Union
Failures of Maoism
-Its successes did not irreversibly resolve the question of long-term success of socialism
- - could not maintain growth without expanding the internal market at the same time as opening to external markets
- - mao tried to shift the tide in favor of socialism through the Cultural Revolution (1966-74) - thought he could rely on the "youth" to lead this correction in the course of the revolution
What legacy did Maoism leave?
Maoism contributed decisively to setting the parameters of the pitfalls and challenges posed by the expansion of globalized imperialism/capitalism...
Conclusion: states want independency (to become active actors in shaping global order), nations want liberalization (development and modernization) and people want revolution (socialism)
China's Capitalist Project
(how does this compare to choice of ruling class in Russia?)
- China's ruling class has chosen the capitalist route
- Market socialism is now a shortcut that allows them to gradually put in lace the fundamental structures and institutions of capitalism
- This method is opposed to the one adopted by the ruling class in Russia, who accepted the simultaneous negotiation of the revolution and the evolution that followed it, which allowed it to reconstruct itself as the new bourgeoisie class
- chinese ruling class knows that people are attached to socialist values and that they must move towards capitalism slowly
- the structure of the worldwide capitalist project an its degree of stability are the products of "historical compromises", socialist alliances defining the hegemonic blocs that succeed eachother during the process of establishing the system
New Alliances in China during the Capitalist Project
(this alliance reflects a hegemonic bloc, but not very good model of development b/c excludes some groups. What would be a more balanced model of development be based on?)
alliances already in place among state powers, the new class of large "private capitalists", peasants in the areas that have profited from the openings offered by urban markets and the rapidly expanding middle classes
However, this hegemonic bloc excludes majority of workers and peasants
More balanced model of development based on prioritizing the growth of internal markets to benefit the majority fo the population
Current poitical and social conflicts in China reflect 2 positions:
1. partisans of peripheral capitalism need to exploit the masses as much as possible, b/c the model of accumulation they propose is outward oriented
2. proponents of model based growth of an internal market have to establish a relationship with the populat classes so they can gain access to capitalist production
The Democracy Question in China
- why is this question more complex in china?
- is current political structure compatible with the capitalist route? what would happen if they switched to western democracy
question more complex as a result of the legacu of the 3rd International? and its particular beliefs concerning the "dictatorship of the proletariat?"
- maintenance of current political structure not compatible with caiptalist route
- - if switched to western democracy, social struggles within lower classes would render it impractical - so China has to invent another form of democracy associated with market socialism
What is socialism?
- first phase?
- how does it work in China?
socialism - emancipation of humanity
-First phase = market socialism
- - Forms of collective property must be created and maintained throughout the process of social development (forms throughout the state, regional workers, workers' and citizens' collevtives
- - must be designed as authentic forms of ownership (not private tho)
China: - Owners' (state collective and private) use of their rights must be regulated to balance the tension btw the requirements of capitalist accumulation and those of the progressive imposition of values of socialism
The Centrality of the Agrarian Question - what needs to happen to agricultural sector in china's mostly capitalist country to be able to sustain itself
How did europe deal with this problem, why cant it be replicated today
B/c of china's growth rate in context of modernization and competition, they need to intensity accumulation based on an increase in the productitvity of labour rather than an expansion of existing industries ...
- 800 million chinese need to stay rural (intensify agricultural sector) --> if they migrate to cities b/c of no land, they would overwhelm urban slums (cant sustain - problem in all of 3rd world)
Europe could sustain capitalist growth by sending excess populaion to the Americas --> 3rd world doesnt have that option. To be competitive must immediately adopt modern technologies that require little labor (prevents South from reproducing the global capitalsi expansion model of the north)
Solution to the agrarian problem?
In the past half century, China revealed another path to engage the whole of the peasantry inthe process of modernization (respecting the riht to land for all) - favorable wiht capitalism
encouraging ag. production doesnt mean that you have to make many landless for the profit of a few --> stagnation for many
How did war on national liberation affect China in the long term?
Who did china look to on how to become modern? whats the risk with this?
war on national liberation restored China's dignity and reconstructed its territorial unity
looked to outside models to see what had to be done for them to become modern - Japan and revolutionary Russia
risk of interpretting its quest for modernity as a failure if it doesn not adopt the "American model"
Legacy of the Chinese revolution?
successes of the last 20 yrs would nto have been possible w/o it - China is a poor country where one sees little poverty
revolution brought its society into modernity - relatively few societies in the periphery of the capitalist system have made this jump (Korea and Taiwan also exceptions)
China's shifting futures...
- what's happening with socialism as future model?
3 possible futures
- Chinese struggle for socialism not yet won --> bourgeoisie and the middle classes have not decided to fight for democracy as long as they can satisfy their consumer appetites
- 3 futures...
- 1. imperialist project of breaking up the country and the compradorization of its costal regions - imperialist strategy that is not path to democracy --> would leave them subordinated tothe expanding imperialism of triad
- 2. national project of capitalist development
- 3. national and popular development project that brings together the logic of market capitalism and the logic of a long-term commitment to socialism
- - 200 more urban dwellers better off than anywhere else in the 3rd world
- -reduction in pockets of rural poverty
- -technological progress
-disadvantages - associated with increasing inequality in the social and regional distribution of income