Contains cards for college level windows server 2008 and Fedora
Describe a client.
A client is a computer that accesses resources on another computer via a network or direct cable connection.
Describe a workstation.
A workstation is a computer that has its own central processing unti (CPU) and can be used as a stand-alone or network computer, (often used for a combination of word-processing, spreadsheet, scienific, and other individual applications).
Describe Active Directory.
A database of computers, users, froups of users, and shared printers, shared folders, and other network resource- by offering a multitude of network services.
What is multitasking?
Multitasking is the ablilty to run two or more programs at the same time.
What is a server?
A server is a singal computer that provides extensive multiuser access to network resources.
What is IP?
Internet Protocol (IP) is a portion of the TCP/IP protocol that provides network addressing to ensure data packets
Whats is an IP address?
The IP address format is called the dotted decimal notation. IPv4 is 32 bits long and contains four fields of decimal values representing eight-bit binary octets.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a portion of TCP/IP that provides for reliable end-to-end delivery of data by controlling data flow.
What is connectionless comunication?
Is commonly used with User Datagram Protocol (UDP) because it does not provide checking to make sure that a connection is reliable and that data is sent accurately.
What is connection oriented communication?
It ensures that packets are delivered, that they are delivered in the right sequence, and their contents are accurate.
What is DHCP?
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used to enable windows server 2008 with DHCP to detect the presence of a new workstation and assign an IP address to that workstation.
What is DNS?
Domain Name System (DNS) is a TCP/IP application protocol that enables a DNS server to resolve (translate) domain and computer names to IP addresses, or IP address to domain and computer names.
Address Resolution Protocol is used to acquire the physical addresses associated with a computers network interface card (NIC).
What is the registry?
The registry is a database used to store information about the configuration, program setup, devices, drivers, and other data important to the setup of Windows operating systems.
What is a Domain?
A domain is a grouping of resource objects--for example, servers, computers, and user accounts-- to enable easier centeralized managment of these objects.
What is a protocol?
A protocol is a strictly defineds set of rules for communication across a netowrk that specifies how networked data is formatted for transmission, how it is transmitted, and how it is interpretedat the recieving end.
What is a router?
A router is a device that connects netowrks, is able to read IP addresses, and can route or forward packets of data to designated networks.
What are BIOS?
Basic input/output system is a program on a read-only or flash memory chip that establishes basic communication with components with components such as the monitor and disk drives.
What is a COM?
Component Object Model (COM) is a set of standards for building software from individual objects or components; COM provides the basis for Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) and Active X, for example.
What is FTP?
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a TCP/IP application protocol that transfers files in bulk data streams and that is commonly used on the internet.
What is NTFS?
New Technology File System (NTFS) is a file system that is native to Windows Server systems and that supports features such as security, compression, disk quotas, encryption, self-healing from disk damage, and others.
What is a SP?
Service Pack (SP) a major update for an operating system that includes fixes for known problems and provides product enhancments.
What is a Hive?
A hive is a set of related Registry keys and subkeys stored as a file.
What is IRQ?
An interrupt request (IRQ) line is a hardware line that a computer component, such as a disk drive or serial port, uses to communicate to the processor that it is ready to send or recieve information. Intel-based computers have 16 IRQ lines, with 15 available for computer components to use.
What is paging?
Paging is the act of moving blocks of information, called pages, from RAM to virtual memory (the paging file) on disk.
What is PnP?
Plug and Play (PnP) is the ability of added computer hardware, such as an adapter or modem, to identify itself to the computer operating system for installation. PnP also refers to the Intel and Microsoft specifications for automatic device detection and installation. Many Operating systems, such as Windows-based, Macintosh, and UNIX/Linux support PnP.
What is a registry entry?
A registry entry is a data parameter in the registry stored as a value in hexadecimal, ninary, or text format.
What is a rigistry key?
A registry key is a category of information contained in Windows registry, such as hardware or software.
What is a registry subkey?
A registry subkey is a key within a registry key, similar to a subfolder in a folder.
Describe a root key.
A root key, also called a subtree, the highest catregory of data contained in the registry. There are five root keys.
What are System Environment Variables?
System evironment variables are varibales deifined by the operating system and that apply to any user logged onto the computer.
Describe virtual memory.
Virtual memory is disk storage allocated to link with physical RAM to temporarily hold data when there is not enough free RAM.
Whats an ACL?
Access Control List (ACL) is a list of all security descriptors that have been set up for a particular object, such as for a shared folder or a shared printer.
What is a contiguos namespace?
A contiguous namespace is a namespace in which every child object has a portion of its name from its parent object.
What is a disjointed namespace?
A disjointed namespace is a namespace in which the child object name does not resemble the parent object name.
What is a Domain Controller (DC)?
A domain controller is a Windows Server 2003 or 2008 server that contains a full copy of the active directory information, is used to add a new object to active directory, and replicates all the changes made to it so the changes are updated on every DC in the same domain.
Discribe a forest.
A forest is a grouping of active directory trees that each have contiguous namespaces within their own domain structure, but that have disjointed namespaces between trees. The trees and their domains use the same schema and global catalog.
What is a Global Catalog?
A global catalog is a repository for all objects and the most frequently used attributes for each object in all domains. Each forest has a single global catalog that can be replicated onto multiple servers.
Discribe a Kerberos transitive trust.
A Kerberos transitive trust relationship is a set of two-way trusts between two or more domains (or forests in a forest trust) in which Kerberos security is used.
What is multimaster replication?
Multimaster replication are Windows Server 2003 and 2008 netowrks that can have multiple servers called DC's that store Active Directory information and replicate it to each other. Because each DC acts as a master, replication does not stop when one DC is down, and updates to Active Directory continue, for example creating a new account.
What is name resolution?
Name resolution is a process used to translate a omputers logical or host name into a netowrk address, such as to a dotted decimal address system associated with a computer and vice versa.
What is an Object?
An object is a network resource, such as a server or a user account, that has distinct attributes or properties, is defined in a domain, and exists in Active Directory.
What is an OU?
An orgianizational Unit (OU) is a grouping of objects within a domain that provides a means to establish specific policies for governing those objects, and that enables object management to be delegated.
What is a roaming profile?
A roaming profile are desktop settings that are associated with an account so that the same settings are employed no matter which computer is used to access the account (the profile is downloaded to the client from a server).
What is a Schema?
A schema are elements used in the definition of each object contained in Active Directory, including the object class and its attributes.
Whats a site?
A site is an option in Active Directory to interconnect IP subnets so that the server can determine the fastest route to connect clients for authentication and to connect DC"s for replication of Active Directory. Site information also enables Active Directory to create redundant routes for DC replication.
Describe a transitive trust.
A transitive trust is a trust relationship between two or more domains in a tree. in which each domain has access to objects in the others.
What is a tree?
A tree are related domains that use contiguous namespace, share the same schema, and have two-way transitive trust relationships.
What is a two-way trust?
A two way trust is a domain relationship in which both domains are trusted and trusting, enabling one to have access to objects in the other.
What is an attribute?
A attribute is a folder or file used to help manage access.
Whats a disk quota?
A disk quota is allocation of a specific amount of disk space to a user or application with the ability to ensure that the user or application cannot use more disk space than is specified in the allocation.
A Distributed File System (DFS) is a system that enables folders shared from multiple computers to appear as though they exist in one centralized hierarchy of folders instead of on many different computers.
Encrypted File System (EFS) is set by an attribute of NTFS, this file system enables users to encrypt the contents of a folder or a file so that it can only be accessed via a private key code by the user who encrypted it. EFS adheres to the Data Encryption Standard's expanded version for data protection.
What are inhereted permissions?
Inhereted permissions are permissions of a parent object that also applies to child objects of the parent, such as to subfolders within a folder.
Discribe load balancing.
Load balancing is when on a single server, distributing resources across multiple server disk drives and paths for better serve response; on mulitple network servers, distributing resources across two or more servers for better server and network performance.
What is ownership?
Ownership is having the privilege to change permissions and to fully manipulate an object. The account that creates an object, such as a folder or a printer, initially has ownership.
What are permissions?
In windows server 2008, privileges to access and manipulate resource objects, such as folders and printers; for example, the privilege to read a file or to create a new file.
What are share permissions?
Share permissions are permissions that apply to a particular object that is shared over a network, such as a shared folder or printer.
Describe bidirectional printing.
Bidirectional printing is the ability of a parallel printer to conduct two-way communication between the printer and the computer, such as to provide out-of-paper information; also, bidirectional printing supports PLug and Play and enables an operating system to query a printer about its capabilities.
What is a data-type (print file).
A data tybe is a way in which information is formatted in a print file.
What is GDI?
The Graphics Device Interface (GDI) is an interface on a Windows network print client that works with a local software application, such as Microsoft Word, and a local printer driver to format a file to be sent to a local printer or a network print server.
What is IPP?
The Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) is a protocol that is encapsulated in HTTP and that is used to print files over the internet.
What is a local print device?
A local print device is a printing device, such as a laser printer, connected to a print server through a network.
What is a network print device?
A network print device is a printing device, such as a laser printer, connected to a print server through a network.
What is a print queue?
A print queue is a stack or lineup of print jobs, with the first job submitted at the top of the stack and the last job submitted at the bottom, and all of the jobs waiting to be sent from the spooler to the printer.
What is a print server?
A print server is a network computer or server device that connects printers to the network for sharing that recieves and processes print requests from print clients.
What is printer pooling?
Printer pooling is linking two or more identical printers with one printer setup or printer share.
RAW is a data type often used for printing MS-DOS, Windows3.x, and UNIX and Linux print files.
What is a spooling file?
A spooling file is a print file written to disk until it can be transmitted to a printer.
What is a spooler?
A spooler in the Windows environment, is a group of DLL's, information files, and programs that process print jobs for printing.
What is spooling?
Spooling is a process working the background to enable several print files to go to a single printer. Each file is placed in temporary storage until its turn comes to be printed.
What is an active partition?
The active parition is the partition from which the computer boots.
What is a basic disk?
In windows server 2008, a partitioned disk that can have up to 4 partitions and that uses logical drive designations. This type of disk is compatible with MS-DOS, and alot of other windows shit.
What is a boot partition?
A boot partition holds the Windows Server 2008/Windows folder containing the system files.
What is chkdsk?
Disk Check (chkdsk) is a tool that allows you to scan your disk for bad sectors and file system errors.
Defragmenting is a software process that rearranges data to fill in empty spaces that develop on disks and makes data easier to obtain.
What is disk duplexing?
Disk duplexing is a fault tolerance method similar to disk mirroring in that it prevents data loss by duplicating data from a main disk to a backup disk; but disk duplexing places backup disk on a different controller or adapter that is used by the main disk.
What is disk mirroring?
Disk Mirroring is a fault tolerance method that prevents data loss by duplicating data from a main disk to a backup disk. Some operating systems also refer to this as disk shadowing.
Discribe dynamic disk.
Dynamic disk in WIndows server 2008, is a disk that does not use traditional partitioning, which means that there is no restriction to the number of volumes that can be set up on one disk or to the ability to extend volumes onto additional physical disks. Dynamic disks are only compatible with Windows server 2008, and WIndows Server 2003 platforms.
What is an extended partition?
An extended partition is a partition that is created from unpartitioned free disk space and is linked to a primary partition in order to increase the available disk space.
Describe fault tolerance.
Fault tolerance are techniques that emply hardware and software to provide assurance againts equipment failure, computer service interuptions and data loss.
What is incremental backup?
Incremental backup backs up only files that are new or that have been updated.
What is a mirrored volume?
A mirrored volume is two dynamic disks that are set up for RAID level 1 so that data on one disk is stored on a redundant disk.
What is a mounted drive?
A mounted drive is a physical disk, CD/DVD, removable drive, or other drive that appears as a folder and that is accessed through a path like any other folder.
What is partitioning?
Partitioning is blocking a group of tracks and sectors to be used by a particular file system, such as NTFS.
What is a primary partition?
A primary partition is a partition or portion of a hard disk that is bootable.
Redundant Array of Independant Disks (RAID) is a set of standards designed to extend the life of hard disk drives and to prevent data loss from a hard disk failure.
What is a simple volume?
A simple volume is a portion of a disk or an entire disk that is set up as a dynamic disk.
What is a spanned volume?
A spanned volume is two or more windows server dynamic disks that are combined to appear as one disk.
What is a stripped volume?
A stripped volume is two or more dynamic disks that use striping so that files are spread in blocks across the disks.
What is stripping?
Stripping is a data storage method that breaks up data files across all volumes of a disk set to minimize wear on a single volume.
What is a system partition?
A system partition is a partition that contains boot files.
What is a volume?
A volume is logical disignation ot one or more physical disks partitioned and formatted with one file system.
WHat is avolume set?
A volume set is two or more formatted basic disk partitions (volumes) that are combined to look like one volume with a single drive letter.
What is DNS?
A DNS is a DOmain Name System that does name resolution that is enable through the use of tables of information that link computer names with IP addresses.
What is FTP?
FTP or FIle Transfer Protocol is available through TCP/IP protocol suite, FTP enables files to be transfered across a netowrk of the internet between computers.
IIS or internet information service is a microsoft windows server 2008 role that provides internet Web, FTP, mail, and other services, and that is particularly offered set up a web server.
What is "scope"?
Scope is a range of IP addresses that a DHCP sercer can lease to clients.
What is DES?
DES or Data Encryption Standard is a method developed by IBM and the National Security Agency in cooperation with the National Bureau of Standards (now called the National Institute of Standards and Technology) as an encryption technique using a secret key between communicating stations. Triple DES (3DES) empoys three secret keys combined into one long key.
What is IPsec?
IPsec is a set of IP-based secure communications and encryption standards created through the internet engineering task force (IETF).
NAT or Network Address Translation used by microsoft routing and remote access services and by firewalls, NAT translates IP addresses on an internal or local network so that the actual IP address cannot be determined on the internet, because the address seen on the internet is a decoy address.
PAP (Password authentication Protocol) is a nonencrypted plaintext password authentication protocol. This represents the lowest level of security for exchanging passwrods via PPP or TCP/IP.
what is PPP?
PPP is Point to Point Protocol and is a widely used remote comunications protocol that transports PPP as well as legacy protocols such as IPX and NetBEUI. PPP is used for dial-up connections between a client and windows server 2008.
What is SLIP?
SLIP or Serial Line Internet Protocol. Its an older remote communications protocol that is used by some UNIX and Linux Computers. The modern compressed SLIP (CSLIP) version uses header compression to reduce communications overhead.
What is a VPN?
A VPN is a virtual Private Network that is like a tunnel through a larger network-- such as the internet, an enterprise netowrk, or both--that is restricted to designated member clients only.
Kerberos is a security system developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to enable two parties on an open network to communicate without interception from an intruder, by creating a unique encryption key for each communication session.
What are Inhereted Rights?
Inhereted Rights are user rights that are assigned to a group taht automatically apply to all members of that group.
What is a counter?
A Counter is used by Performance Monitor, a measurment technique for an object, for example, for measuring the processor performance by percentage use.
What is a handle?
A Handle is a resource, such as a file, used by a program that has its own identification so the program is able to acccess it.
Output of information gathered via Performance Monitor objects, counters, and instances configured within a data collector set.
What is SNMP?
SNMP or Simple Network Management Protocol is used for network management and performance monitoring on TCP/IP based networks.
What is a thread?
A thread is a block of program code executing wihtin a running process. One process may launch one or more threads.
What is a Trace Report?
A Trace Report contains results of monitored trace events generated by a data collector set and contains only those instances when the events occur, such as creating a trace to record each time disk input/output activity occurs or when an Active Directory Kerberos security event is triggered.
Linux command name: cat
The cat command is short for concatenate files and the command will print the file contents to the standard output (normally your PC screen), and cat also can be use to create file on Linux system.
Linux command name: cd
Change Directory, allows you to switch between desired directories.
Linux command name: cp
copy all files in dir to anotherdir
[ cp -r dir/* anotherdir ]
Ctrl-Alt-F1 and other sequences
for opening terminals
<Ctrl><Alt><F1> Switch to the first text terminals.
<Ctrl><Alt><Fn> (n=1..6) Switch to the nth text terminal.
<Ctrl><Alt><F7> Switch to the first GUI terminal
<Ctrl><Alt><Fn> (n=7..12) Switch to the nth GUI terminal.
Linux command name:
A GUI text editor for GNOME.
Linux command name: JPEG
Joint Pictures Expert Group is a form of picture compression.
What is JPG?
File extension JPG is related to JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image file format. It is mostly used for bitmap images (photos, pictures, etc.).
Linux command name: "L"s ls
display current directory files and permissions.
Linux command name: mail
mail - send and receive mail.
Linux command name: passwd
If you are the root user ( the system administer ) you can change and reset every user password in the system. Below is the step by step example how the root user can reset the user password.
Linux command name: pwd
print working directory
What is RedHat?
Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Fedora enjoy a mutually beneficial relationship that ensures rapid innovation. Fedora benefits from the sponsorship and feedback from Red Hat. In turn, Red Hat can bring leading-edge innovation to the broader community for collaboration, enabling a rapid maturation of the technology.
Linux command name: rm
This manual page documents the GNU version of rm. rm removes each specified file. By default, it does not remove directories.
What is root?
"root" is the name of the user who can control everything on the entire computer. We call this the "super user."
Linux command name: useradd
add new user. [ useradd user1 ] adds new user named user1