Integrative Physiology

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Integrative Physiology
2011-10-01 16:32:53

Study guides for exam I
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  1. List the 4 main functions of the Nervous System
    • Detect information
    • Recognize significance
    • Decide on response
    • Execute action

  2. Define afferent, efferent pathways, and reflex pathways
    • Afferent: sensory neurons carry information from the PNS to CNS
    • Efferent: neurons relay information from CNS to effector organ
    • Reflex: controls action reflex, most sensory information do not pass directly into the brain, but synapse in the spinal cord
  3. List the function of the individual cranial nerves and state whether they are sensory, motor or mixed.
    • (Oh Oh Oh to touch and feel girls vaginas gives victor a hardon) (Some say marry money but my brother say big boobs matters more)
    • Olfactory, Sensory, Smell
    • Optic, Sensory, Vision
    • Oculomotor, Motor, Eye movement
    • Trochclear, Motor, Eye movement
    • Trigeminal, Both, Masticatory movements, sensitivity of face
    • Abducens, Motor, Eye movement
    • Facial, Both, Muscle in facial expression, taste from 2/3 of tongue
    • Vestibulocochlear, Sensory, hearing, balance
    • Glossopharyngeal, Both, Movement of pharynx and salivary secretion, taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue
    • Vagus, Both, Sensitivity and movement of heart lungs, gastrointestinal tract, larynx
    • Accessory, Motor, Movement of neck muscles, viscera, and swallowing
    • Hypoglossal, Motor, Tongue movement
  4. List the 4 main regions of the spinal cord.
    • Cervical
    • Lumbar
    • Thoracic
    • Sacral
  5. Explain the functional significance of the dorsal and ventral parts of the spinal cord (ie. which part is for sensory/efferent information)
    • Dorsal Root; carries sensory afferent information to CNS
    • Ventral Root: carries efferent motor information to muscle and glands
  6. Define ascending and descending tracts.
        1. Ascending tract: Sensory information from spinal cord to brain
          Descending tract: Information from brain to spinal cord
  7. List and describe (hard, soft, etc) the 3 layers of meninges.
    • Dura Mater, outside layer, hard
    • Arachnoid matter middle layer, spidery
    • Pia matter, soft, adherent
  8. Describe the components and function of the Ventricular System.
        1. Hollow spaces in brain filled with a circulating fluid
        2. 4 Ventricle, Lateral ventricles, third ventricle, fourth ventricleContains cerebrospinal fluid (proteins and glucose)Choroid Plexus modified ependymal cells, pia matter and capillaries
          Purpose: provide nourishment and protection
  9. Describe the blood-brain barrier.
        1. Prevents toxic substances from entering brain because of tight junctions in the capillary cells
          Lipid soluble substances can diffuse in
  10. List the 6 major divisions of the brain.
    • Cerebru
    • Diencephalon
    • these two make up the forebrain
    • Cerebellum
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla Oblongata
    • these three make up the brain stem
  11. List the components of the midbrain and state their functions.
        1. Conduction pathway between higher and lower brain centerTectum, inferior colliculi; are part of the auditory pathway and superior collculi, coordinates visual somatic and auditory information, adujusting movements of the head and eyes towards the stimulus
          Tenmentum: controls motor function regulate awareness and attention and regulates some autonomic function
  12. List the functions of the pons
        1. Relays information from the cerebrum to the cerebellemCo-operates with the medulla oblongata to control respiratory rate and depth
  13. List the components and the functions of the medulla oblongata.
        1. Grey matter, visceral nuclei controlling heart rate,blood vessel diameter, respiratory rate, coughing and vomiting
          White matter: contains ascednding somatosensory tracts and descending corticospinal tracts
  14. State the function of the cerebellum.
        1. Processes information from cerebral motor cortex, proprioceptors, visual and equilibrium
  15. List the components of the diencephalon and describe the major functions of each.
        1. Thalmus, relay station and memory processing
          Hypothalmus, center of homeostasis
          Limbic system functional grouping involving cerebral and diencephalic structures, mediates emotional response
  16. List the components of the limbic system and describe the function of each.
        1. Hippocampus, learning and memoryAmygdala, fear and aggressionCingulate gyrus, involved in positive and negative emotional responses
          Insular Cortex, relates visceral/autonomic sensation of emotion to the rest of the brain
  17. Name the function of the corpus collosum.
        1. Connects the right and the left hemispheres
  18. Describe the layers of grey matter comprising the cerebral cortex.
        1. Layer 1, almost has no cell bodiesLayer 2, Inhibitory internueronsLayer 3, Excitatory internueronsLayer 4 Most sensory signalsLayer 5 and 6, are the major output cells of the cortex
          Layers 123 connect adjacent cortical region and integrate cortical function
  19. List the 4 cerebral cortices and identify the major functions of each.
        1. Frontal Lobe: primary motor cortex, motor association area, skeletal muscle movementParietal Lobe: Primary somatic sensory cortex, sensory information from,skin, musculoskeletal system viscera and taste budsOccipital lobe; primary visual cortex, visual association area, vision
        2. Temporal LObe; Primary Auditory cortex, auditory association area, hearin
          Gustatory cortex, taste
          Olfactory cortex, smell
  20. Define sensory homunculus.
        1. Map showing which areas of the somatosensory cortex are devoted to particular regions of the body
  21. Describe the Geschwind Model of Language
        1. The left hemisphere is where speech is processed in brain. There are primary visual cortex, to see words, the angular gyrus, the recognition of a written word, Arcuate Fasciculus, connects wernickes area to Brocas area. Primary motor cortex, primary auditory cortex and wernicke’s area. Are all areas of the brain used in language
  22. List the functions of Wernicke’s area, the arcuate fasiculus, the angular gyrus and Broca’s area
        1. Arculate fasciculus, connects wenickes area to brocas area
          Angular gyrus, recognition of written words
          Broca area, speech planning and sequencing, language expression
          Wernicke’s area, speech comprehension
  23. Recognize examples of speech due to damage of Broca’s or Wernicke’s areas (see tutorial)
        1. Wernickes, fluent nonsenical Jargon, possible neologism (a new invented word or phrase)
          Brocas, difficulty in speech production, comprehension is good
  24. Explain how one side of the brain controls the other side of the body (contralateral control).
        1. Contralateral control, the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body, vice versa
          Proprioception, vibration come in the top left and left the top left, vice versa
          Pain temperature, comes in the top left and cross down to bottom right and goes up and out the top right
  25. List the general functions of the right and left hemisphere.
    • right, analysis of touch, spatial visualization and analysis
    • Left, Speech cneter, writing, general interpretive center (langiage and mathematical calculations)
  26. List the language capabilities of the right hemisphere.
        1. Comprehend vocabulary of 13 year old
          Comprehend sentence structure of 5 year old
          Give context of language
          Govern emotional expression
    • Important with visual spatial
  27. Be able to explain the actions of a split-brain patient – see lecture and tutorial.
    oh yeah!!!
  28. Define Sensory Receptor. Name the stimuli that are detected by visceral (interoceptor) and somatic senses.
    • sense organ: an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation
    • Visceral; detect stimuli that arise with in the body
    • SOmatic; receptors that detect sensations associated with the receptors associated with skin and proprioception
  29. Define modality, the law of specific nerve energies and adequate stimulus. Under what circumstances will a receptor respond to an “inadequate stimulus”?
        1. Modality, the energy form of a stimulus
          The law of specific nerve energies and adequate stimulus, sensory receptors are specific for a particular modality
    • adequate stimulus, specific modality to which the receptor is most sensitive
  30. List the major groups of receptors and their adequate stimuli.
        1. Photoreceptor,light waves
    • Mechanoreceptors, pressure stretch, baroreceptors
    • Chemoreceptor. taste, smell, blood concentration
    • Thermoreceptors,sensations of coldness and warmth
  31. List the 3 structural types of sensory receptors.
        1. Simple receptors, neurons with free nerve endings
        2. Complex neural receptors, have nerve endings enclosed in connective tissue
        3. Special senses receptors, are cells that release neurontransmitter onto sensory neurons initiating an action potential
  32. Define neural and non-neural receptors.
        1. Neural receptor, free nerve endings
        2. Non-neural receptor
  33. Explain how a sensory stimulus is transduced into electrical signals.
        1. the stimulus energy must be transduced , convert the energy stimulus into changes in membrane potential, most open/ close ions channels
        2. results in generator potential or receptor potential
  34. Define Adaptation, Tonic Receptors, Phasic Receptors and Labelled Lines.
        1. Adaptation, process in which sensory receptors to response to stimulus over time
        2. Tonic receptors, adapt slowly, transmits signal as long as the simulus last (blood pressure)
          1. Bioogical parameter that require constant monitoring
        3. Phasic receptors, fires when the stimulus is first received then shut off when, when the stimulus is at a constant intensity
        4. Labelled Lines,specific neural pathways, transmitting specific modality information
  35. Define sensory unit and receptive field.
        1. Sensory unit , a single afferent neuron with all its receptor endings
        2. Receptive field, the region within which a sensory neuron can detect a stimulus
  36. Describe a generalized pathway for sensory information.
        1. To activate sensory receptor, stimulus must fall within receptive field, afferent neuron (first order neuron), then spinal cord or brain stem, second order neuron, thalmus, third order neuron, cortex
  37. Describe how the brain can discriminate between different stimuli, with reference to modality, intensity of signal (frequency and population coding), recruitment and inhibitory modulation.
        1. Brain can stimulate between different stimluus it modality, its intensity, and location
          1. Modality,which type of receptor is activated,
          2. Intensity, the number of action potential created, and the frequency of the action potential, as the stimulus increases more receptors will respond
          3. Location, acuity ( precision) size and number of receptive fields, overlap of receptive fields, and lateral inhibition.
  38. Explain (using receptive field, primary, secondary and tertiary neurons, and convergence) why some areas of the body are highly sensitive to sensory stimuli and others are less sensitive.
        1. The larger the receptive field the less sensitive the area will be ( the back) the smaller
  39. Explain how lateral inhibition helps to isolate location
        1. When put point of pen on tip of finger, it causes high stimulus of that specific neuron causing it to inhibit the other neurons next to it
  40. Describe the Spinothalamic Tract and the Dorsal Column pathways.
        1. Spinothalmic tract, pain temp, from the right side of body, comes in the top left when looking at the spinal column crosses over to bottom right and goes out the top right
        2. Dorsal Column, touch/pressure and proproception, form the right side of body, comes in the top right and leaves the top right
  41. Describe the various fibers types involved in the transmission of somatic sensation.
        1. A-beta, largest fibers, meylinated, and transmit signals fastest
        2. A-delta, fibers are thin, lightly myelinated
        3. C-fibers, are unmyelinated

    1. Which ones are used in mechanoreception, thermoreception and nociception

    • Mechanorecption, pressure, vibration, mainly A-beta
        1. Thermorecption,
          1. Cold reeptors drop in temperature from 35-20 which are mainly A-Delta fibers, also detect temperature over 45, paradoxical cold
          2. Warm receptors sense temperature around30 and 43 and are mainly C-fibers
  42. To what parts of the CNS are painful stimuli transmitted. Explain the spinal reflex as it relates to the withdrawal from painful stimuli
        1. They release substance p and glutamate
  43. Define referred pain and describe the physiological cause.
        1. Referred pain caused by multiple primary sensory neurons converging on a single ascending tract
        2. Brain get confused between signals coming from somatic (skeletal) sources those which are visceral
  44. Describe the Gate Control Theory of Pain
        1. Somatic signals of non-painful stimuli can inhibit signals of pain at the spinal level
  45. Describe the mechanisms involved in endogenous analgesia.
        1. Inhibitory internuerons in the spinal cord, synapsewith the second order pain fiber and with primary afferent neuron
        2. The inhibitory interneuron release an endogenous opiate neurotransmitter enkephalin
          1. Binds to the opiate receptors on the second order neuron and produces inhibitory post synaptic potentials
          2. Binds to the primary afferent neuron and inhibits the release of sybstance P
  46. What is the definition of:“learning”; “associative-” and “non-associative-” learning; “memory”; “declarative-” and “procedural-” memory.
        1. Learning; acquistion of information or skil as a consequnc of experience, that results in change in behavior
        2. Associative: making connection between 2 or more stimuli
        3. Nonassociative: repetition of a simulus or stimuli
        4. Memory: the capacity to retain and recall past experience
        5. Declaritive: memory if events that can be put into words
        6. Procedural: memory of how to do things (riding a bike)
  47. Describe Hebb’s Cell Assembly.
        1. Hebb’s Cell Assembly, experiencing an event would activate a group of neurons
  48. Name the parts of the brain involved in the formation of:

    1. a. short- and long-term declarative memory;

        1. Short term memory involves hippocampus and temporal lobe
        2. Long term memory many areas of association cortex
  49. short- and long- term procedural memory.
        1. Short term involves, specific areas of the basal ganglia
        2. Long term involves cerebellum, basal nuclei and premotor cortex
  50. Define “retrograde” , “anterograde” and “transient global” amnesia.
        1. Retrograde, the inability to recall events that occured prior to soe disturbance in the brain
        2. Anterograde: the inability to recall events that occur after some disturbance in the brain
        3. Transient: temporary loss of memory
  51. Describe the effects of damage to the medial temporal lobe and the medial dorsal thalamus.
        1. Damage to the medial temporal lobe results in Anterograde, cannot store declarative memories, can store and retain procedural memories
        2. Damage to medial dorsal thalmus produces similar but milder memory defects
  52. Describe Korsakoff’s syndrome.
        1. Thiamin deficiency in chronic alcoholism, eventually results in damage to medial temporal lobe and thalmus
          1. Profound antergrad amnesia
          2. LOss of declarative not procedural
          3. Lack of awareness of memory deficit
  53. v\Explain the role of the hippocampus in memory formation.
        1. Processing/laying down of declarative memories, spatial memory and relational memory
  54. Define long-term potentiation and;

    1. b. describe the underlying neural mechanism

        1. Experience can increase the functioning of specific hippocampal neurons
        2. results in increased neural responsivity, increasing amplitude and duration of the EPSP’s
  55. List the stages of Alzheimer’s Disease and;

    1. b. Describe the cellular changes noted in Alzheimer’s disease.

        1. Stage 1; Anterograde amnesia disoriented, careless
        2. Stage 2; loss memory if all recent events
        3. Stage 3; loss of semantic and procedural memory
        4. Neurofibrillary tangles found inside cells due to hyperphosphoryation of microtuble protein
        5. Amyloid beta protein thought to cause degeneration
        6. Degeneration of cholinegic neurons in forebrain
  56. Know the interpretation of sound: frequency, amplitude and duration.
        1. Sounds waves strike the tympanic membrane and cause vibration, which goes into the three bones of the middle ear, the stapes is attached to the oval window, this vibration of the oval window causes fluid waves in the cochlea. The fluid waves push on membrane of cochlear duct
        2. energy is transmitted across the cochlear duct, into the tympanic duct and dissipates back to middle ear via round window, Hair cells in the cochlear duct create action potentials in sensory neurons of the nerve
  57. Know the anatomy of the outer, middle and inner ear.
        1. Outer, pinna, ear cannal, tympanic membrane
        2. Middle, maleus, incus stapes
        3. Inner semicircular canals, oval window, vestibular apparatus, cochlea, nerves
  58. Define how sound is transduced
        1. The louder the sound is the greater the prequency of action potentials generated, ten afferent neurons join to form cochlear nerve
  59. Know the specifics of how sound is transformed into electrical signals in the hair cells.
        1. 10 percent of ion channels are open, tonic signals, When hair cells bend in direction, the cells depolarize which increases action potential frequency
        2. If the hair cells bend the opposite direction ion channels and the cell hpyerpolarizes
  60. Describe the neural pathway of sound.
        1. Fibers going to ventral cochlea nucleus, then project to the medulla, superior olive (timing and loudness, determines location of sounds)
        2. Secondary starts in dorsal cochlear nuclues difference (bet bat dept)
        3. Project to inferior colliculi via a track called ateral lemnicus, goes onto themedial geniculate nuclei and onto primary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe
  61. Describe how frequency is coded on the basilar membrane.
        1. High frequency sound waves cause greatest deflection near the oval window
        2. Low frequency sound waves cause greatest deflection near the helocotrema (end of the cochlea)
  62. Describe the anatomy of the vestibular apparatus.
        1. Three membranous semicircular canals and two saclike swelling utricle and saccule
          1. Anterior canal, detect movement of head up and down
          2. POsterior canl, detect movement of head up and down to the side (ear towards shoulder)
          3. Lateral canal, detect movement of head from side to side
  63. Define what the semicircular canals, utricle and sacule are involved in.
          1. Utrile foward and backward acceleration
          2. Sacule, acceleration up and down
  64. Describe how hair cells generate electrical signals in the vestibular apparatus.
        1. Within the ampulla sterocilia embedded in gelatinaous mass, cupula
        2. When head starts to turn, fluid cannot keep up, drap of endolymph bends hair cells in the opposite to the direction in which the head is turning
  65. List the components of the polysomnograph.
        1. EOG, EEG EMG
        2. Electroculograph, eletroencephalograph, Electromyograph
  66. List the 5 stages of sleep.
        1. Stage 1, transition stage
        2. Stage 2, light sleep
        3. Stage 3, deep sleep
        4. Stage 4, deep sleep
        5. Stage 3 and 4 are know as slow wave sleep (SWS)
  67. Describe how homeostatic pressure and circadian rhythm affect our ability to sleep.
        1. Substances accumulte during the day, enhane activity of sleep promoting and reduce activity of wave promoting cells Adenosine
        2. Circadian rhtm is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the sleep/wake cycle is correlated with core body temperature
  68. Define “ultradian rhythm” and “hypnogram” and describe how sleep architecture changes across the night.
        1. Ultradian rhythm ,regular recurrance of activity in cycles less than 24 hours
          1. Sleep cycle last 1.5 hours around 6/night
        2. Hypnogram distribution of sleep stages across the night, most deep sleep occuts in the first third of the night and most REM sleep occurs in the last third of the night
  69. Describe and explain the changes that occur in sleep with age
        1. Light sleep increases, Deep sleep decreases, Wakefulness increases
  70. Describe the Restorative Theory of Sleep, and list the effects of total and partial sleep deprivation.
        1. Sleep (SWS) allow us to reapir and rejuvenate
        2. Increase in cell meiosis, mitosis
        3. Increase in tissue repair
        4. Immune response activated
        5. Partial sleep deprivation, decreases insulin sensitivity, increase cortisol, decrease growth hormone
        6. Memory problems, irritability, immnune problems, hallucinations,
        7. Recovery sleep increase SWS and followed by REM rebound
  71. List the neural structures involved in arousal and sleep.
        1. Wakefulness is promoted y neurons in the posterior lateral hypothalmus neurotranmitter, glutamate, histamine, orexin (sleep of neurons)
        2. Sleep is promoted by neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic area of the anterior hypthalmus, nerotransmitters, GABA, galanin, these are sleep on neurons
  72. State the activity of 5-HT, NA, DA, ACh and hypocretin/orexin neurons in wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep
    look at graph