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When did the French began to transport wounded soldiers away from the scene of battle?
In 1966 which Act charged the United States Dept of Transportation (DOT) with developing EMS standards and assisting the states to upgrade the quality of their prehospital emergency care?
National highway Safety Act
With modern EMS systems the concept of ambulance service was for what?
transporting the sick and injured passed into oblivion
What specialty hospital has surgery teams capable of the compregensive treatment 24 hours a day?
What are the four levels of EMS training and certification?
- 1. (EMR Previously called First Responder) Emergency Medical Responder
- 2. (EMT previously called EMT-Basic) Emergency Medical Technician
- 3. (AEMT previously called EMT-Intermediate) Advanced Emergency Medical Technician
- 4. (Previously sometimes called EMY-Paramedic) Paramedic
What is the EMR?
Emergency Medical Responder, often first at the scene.
What is the minimum level of certification for ambulance personnel?
What are the physical traits of a good EMT?
- 1. lift and carry up to 125lb
- 2. eyesight (see clearly and have sight corrected)
- 3. Be aware of color vision problems
- 4. Be able to give and recieve oral and written instructions and communication
What are some personal traits of a good EMT?
- Emotionally Stable
- Able to lead
- Neat and clean
- Good moral character and respectful
- In control of personal habits
- controlled in conversation and able to communicate properly
- Able to listen
- Nonjudgmental and fair
What is a process of continuous self-review with the purpose of identifying and correcting aspects of the system that require improvement?
What are the ways toward quality care?
- Preparing carefully written documentation
- Becoming involved in the quality process
- obtaining feedback
- maintaining your equipment
- continuing your education
Describe a Medical Director.
A physician who assumes ultimate responsibility for the patient-care aspects of the EMT system
What is the oversight of the patient-care aspects of the EMS system?
What is a protocols?
list of steps for assessment and intervention to be preformed in different situation
Whats the difference in off-line and on-line medical direction?
- Off-line : orders given by the medical director
- On-line: orders given directly by the on-duty physician to an EMT
What is the EMS role in public health?
- Injury prevention for geriatric patients
- Injury prevention for youth
- Public vaccination programs
- Disease surveillance
How to start and maintain EMT health?
- Maintaining solid personal relationships
- Eat right
- Limit alcohol and caffeine intake
- See your physician regularly and keep up-to-date on vaccines
What are diseases called?
Pathogens: organisms that cuase infection such as viruses and bacteria
Equipment and procedures that protect you from blood and bidy fluids of the patient--- and protect the patient from your blood and body fluids as well is referred as___________.
List some personal protective equipment
- Vinyl or other nonlatex gloves
- hand washing
- alcohol-based hand cleaners
- eye and face protection
Which diseases mode of transmission HIV-infected blood via intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual contact, blood transfusion, or rarely accidental needlesticks, mothers can pass HIV to their unborn child?
AIDS (acquired immune dificiency syndrome)
What are two airborne diseases?
- Chicken pox (varicella): can also be spread by contact with open sores
- German measles (rubella): can also be passed from mother to unborn child
How is H1N1(flu) is transmitted?
Which two diseasesare transmitted through resiratory secretions and airborne?
- Tuberculosism (TB): also transmitted through contaminated objects
- Whooping cough (pertussis)
How is Staphylococcal skin infections transmitted?
Direct contact with nfected wounds and sores or contaminated objects
Which two diseases are transmitted through oral and nasal secretions?
- Pnemonia also passed through naasal droplets
How is Hepatitis spread?
Blood, stool or other body fluids, or contaminated objects
What disease is spread by droplets of saliva or objects contaminated by saliva?
Whats the Ryan White Care Act from 1994?
requires every states public health officer to designate an official within every emergency response organization
What are the three types of stress reactions that occur as a result of a critical incident that triggered strong emotional response?
- Acute Stress Reaction: often linked to catastrophes
- Delayed Stress Reaction: also known as posttraumatic stress disorder
- Cumulative Stress Reaction: also known as a burnout is not triggered by one incident but by recurring low level stressors
Whats the difference in Eustress and Distress?
- Eustress: positive form of stress that helps people work under pressure and respond effectively
- Distress: is negative
Define critical Incident Stress Management.
a comprehensive system that includes education and resources to both prevent stress and to deal with stress appropriately when it occurs
Steps or approaches in dealing with the patient and family members confronted with death or dying
- Recognize the patient's needs
- Be tolerant of angry reactions from the patient or family members
- Listen empathetically
- Do not falsely reassure
- Offer as much comfort as you realistically can
Define body mechanics.
proper use of your body to prevent injury and to facilitate lifting and moving
What should you consider before lifting patients?
- The object
- Your limitations
- Position your feet properly
- Use your legs
- Never turn or twist
- Do not compensate when lifting with one hand
- Keep the weight close to your body
- Use a stairchair when carrying a patient on stairs
What are the One-Rescuer Drags?
- Clothes Drag
- Incline Drag
- Shoulder Drag
- Foot Drag
- Firefighters Drag
- Blanket Drag
What is a set of regulations and ethical considerations that define the scope, or extent and limits of the EMT job?
Scope of Practice
What is required before any treatment or action taken by and EMT for a patient?
- Consent or permission
- expressed consent is given by adults who are of legal age and mentally competent to make a rational desicion regarding their medical well being
What is DNR?
do not resuscitate order: legal document signed by a patient stating that they are terminal and do not wish to prolong life through resuscitative efforts
Define Duty to Act
an obligation to provide care to a patient
What is it called when an EMT leaves a patient after care has been initiated and before the patient has been transferred to someone with equal or greater training?
What is the difference in libel and slander?
- Libel: false or injurious information in written form
- Slander: flase or injurious information stated verbally
What is the safe haven law?
a law that permits a person to drop off an infant or child at a police, fire or ems station or to deliver the infant or child to any available public safety personnel
What is the intent of the safe haven law?
to protect children who may otherwise be abandoned or harmed