Fluid & electrolytes (part 30-60)
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Define oncotic pressure.
The osmotic pressure exerted by colliods in solution.
______ is a mojor colloid in the vascular system
Protein is a mojor colloid in the ______ system.
The amount and direction of fluid movement in capillaries is determined by what 4 things?
- 1) Capillary hydrostatic pressure.
- 2) Plasma oncotic pressure
- 3) Interstitial hydrostatic pressure
- 4) Interstitial oncotic pressure
- These things 4 things determine what?
Plasma to interstitial fluid shift results in _____.
Plasma to ______ ______ shift results in edema.
Name 3 things that can cause a plasma to interstitial fluid shift.
- 1) Elevation of hydrostatic pressure
- 2) Decrease in plasma oncotic pressure
- 3) Elevation of interstitial oncotic pressure
- These 3 things can cause what?
A fluid shift from the interstitial fluid to plasma space occures whenever there is an increase in _____ ______ or ______ pressure.
A fluid shift from the ______ fluid to ______ _____occures whenever there is an increase in plasma osmotic or oncotic pressure.
Wearing what is a therapeutic action when there is a shift from the interstitial fluid to plasma fluid.
Wearing compression stockings or hose is a therapeutic action when there is a shift from the _____ fluid to _____ fluid.
Water ______ is associated with symptoms that result from cell shrinkage as water is pulled into the vascular system.
Water deficit (increased ECF) is associated with symptoms that result from cell shrinkage as water is pulled into the _____ system.
Water _______ developes from gain or retention of water.
Water excess (decreased ECF) developes from ____ or _____ of water.
What is first spacing?
The normal distribution of fluid in the ICF and ECF.
What is second spacing?
An abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid.
What is third spacing?
Fluid accumulation in part of the body where it is not easily exchanged with ECF.
What's the most powerful cation (+)?
H+ is the most powerful ______.
In the hypothalamic regulation of water _________ in the hypothalamus sense fluid deficit or an increase in plasma osmolality.
In the __________ regulation of water osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus sense fluid deficit or an increase in plasma osmolality.
In hypothalamic regulation of water the osmoreceptors stimulate ______ and _______ hormone release.
In hypothalamic regulation of water the ________ stimulate thirst and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release.
In the hypothalamic regulation of water the release of ADH results in what 2 things happening?
- 1) An increase in free water
- 2) A decreased plasma osmolarity
- Both of these are result of what type of mechanism of water regulation when ADH is released.
The pituitary regulation of water balance is under the control of the ________.
The ________ regulation of water balance is under the control of the hypothalamus.
Name 4 things other than the hypothalamus that can stimulate the posterior pituitary to release ADH.
- 1) Stress
- 2) Nausea
- 3) Nicotine
- 4) Morphine
- These 4 things can cause the pituitary to release ______.
Name 2 hormones that the adrenal cortex releases to regulate both water and electrotlyes?
- 1) Glucocorticiods
- 2) Mineralcorticoids
- These are 2 hormones that the _____ _____ releases to regulate both water and electrotlyes?
The mineralcorticoid _________ has potent sodium-retaining and potassium excreating capabilities.
The mineralcorticoid aldosterone has potent ______ retaining and _______ excreating capabilities.
The _____ are the primary organs for regulating fluid and electrolyte balance.
The kindeys are the primary organs for regulating _____ and ______ balance.
The kideys can selectively reabsorb _____ and ______.
The _____ can selectively reabsorb water and electrolytes.
The renal tubules are the sites of action of _____ and ______ in renal regulation of water.
The _____ _____ are the sites of action of ADH and aldosterone in renal regulation of water.
In cardiac regualtion of water balance ______ ____ _____ is released by cardiac atria in response to increased atrial pressure.
In cardiac regualtion of water balance atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is released by _____ _____in response to increased atrial pressure.
In cardiac regualtion of water balance the release of ANF by the cardiac atria causes what to happen.
It supresses the secretion of aldosteron, renin and ADH. This results in vasodialation, and increased urinary excretion of sodium and water. this in turn causes the BP to decrease.
What accounts for most of our water intake?
The GI tract accounts for most of our water intake.
Small amounts of water are lost by the GI tract in ______.
Small amounts of ______ are lost by the GI tract in feces.
What's insensible water loss?
The invisible vaporization of water from the lungs and skin is known as what?
Approximately _____ ml of water per day is lost through insensible water loss.
Approximately 900 ml of water per day is lost through ______ water loss.
Although water is lost through insensible water loss what is not lost.
electrolytes are not lost through _______ water loss.
Excessive sweating, not insensible water loss, leads to loss of water and ________.
______ ______, not insensible water loss, leads to loss of water and electrolytes.
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