principles exercising prescription

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principles exercising prescription
2011-10-02 16:25:17
principles exercising prescription

principles exercising prescription
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  1. objectives
    • musculoskeletal
    • circulatory
    • respiratory
    • increases:
    • 1.strength
    • 2.flexibility
    • capacity
  2. need knowledge of
    exercise physiology and kinesiology for appropriate exercise prescription
  3. developing flexibility
    ability of the tissues surrounding a joint to yield to stretching w/o interference or opposition and then to relax

    flexibility is joint and activity specific
  4. flexibility program
    know the ROM demands necessary for optimum performance in the activity

    select appropriate flexibility exercises for each involved joint
  5. types of stretching


    active and passive stretching

    PNF-proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
  6. Static stretching
    tissues are gradully stretched up to the point of discomfort

    resulting position held for minimum 30 seconds
  7. ballistic
    active bouncing-no
  8. static-preferred
    less danger of tissue damage through sudden over stretching

    less energy req

    less postexercise soreness

    reduces stretch reflex contraction
  9. active stretching
    • antagonists of joint actions are stretched by the concentric contraction of the agonist muscles
    • ex: yawning stretch
  10. passive stretching
    help of another person


    mechanical assist

    other body part(hands)

    ex: runners quad stretch
  11. PNF
    proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
    Active contraction
    • specific treatment technique
    • combinations of sustained static stretch and muscular contraction are used to increase ROM

    avoid triggering a stretch reflex contraction in the muscle to be stretched

    make positive use of GTO response and reciprocal innervation to further relax the stretching muscle

    active contraction of either the agonist(GTO) or antagonist muscle(reciprocal innervation) or each in turn once the limit of ROM has been reached
  12. whatever the method used.....
    • 1.know the structure and function of the joint
    • 2.know the planes of the joint-

    3.degrees of motion available

    4.tissues responsible for limitation

    5.effects of various reflexes
  13. exercise for muscle
    stength and endurance
    • principles relating to muscle
    • strength and endurance
    • risk factors
    • strength and endurance exercise programs
  14. principles relating to muscle strength and endurance
    • anthropometry
    • overload
    • specificity
    • progressive resistive
    • momentum
    • alignment and impact
    • resistance arm
    • frequency
    • exercise-order
    • warm-up
    • symmetry
    • gravity
  15. Anthropometry
    height, weight, size of component body parts

    different limb lengths of individuals produce different angular kinematics

    adjustments of weight machines for different body sizes
  16. Overload
    muscle must be exercised at or near mazimum strength and endurance capacity for a specified period of time if strength and endurance are to be developed

    strength of a muscle exercised against normally encountered resistances will not increase
  17. specificity
    strength and endurance training activities must be specific to the demands of the particular activity for which strength or endurance is being developed

    • full range of:
    • 1.joint action
    • 2.speed
    • 3.resistance demands of the movement should be duplicated in the training activity

    SAID principle
  18. SAID
    specific adaptation to imposed demands
    suggests a framework of specificity is a necessary foundation upon which an exercise program is built
  19. progressive resistive
    resistance against which a muscle group is exercised must be increased periodically

    the overload program increases strength

    original overload eventually becomes inadequate and must be supplemented with progressive increases in resistance
  20. momentum
    use of momentum should be minimized where possible

    • the motion should be done in a slow, controlled manner using muscle force
    • not momentum
  21. alignment and impact
    when the weight is supported by the feet, in an impact or nonimpact situation, the knees must always remain over the feet

    when there is an alternate, low-impact work is more appropriate than high-impact work

    low=one foot remaining on the floor
  22. resistance arm
    the longer the resistance arm, the more strenuous the motion

    shorten resistance arm,RA, to begin with and gradually move weight down to lengthen RA

    segments should be kept close to the body, until one is certain that individuals are capable of more strenuous effort
  23. frequency
    a regular program of exercise should be followed at least 3-5 times per week

    the maximum number of repetitions is dependent on the specific demands of the activity
  24. exercise order
    arranged so that each muscle group has a rest period between two exercises that both stress that muscle group

    plan the program-the more easily fatigued muscles are exercised last
  25. warm-up/cool down
    all muscle strengthening and endurance workouts should be preceded by warm-up and followed by cool-down exercises

    • the warm-up prevents injury by:
    • preparing the muscle and joint for increased tension

    creates a neuromuscular system adjustment
  26. cool-down
    speeds recovery

    removes accumulated lactic acid

    alleviates muscle soreness
  27. maintenance
    • once muscle strength and ROM are developed
    • can be maintained with less frequency workout sessions
  28. symmetry
    appropriate balance between joint flexibility and muscle strength must be maintained for each muscle and joint as well as a balance between agonist and antagonist muscle pairs

    imbalance can lead to injury or permanent deformity
  29. gravity
    maximum resistance is produced when working in opposition to gravity

    movements in the same directions as the line of gravity are resisted by the antagonist muscle
  30. risk factors
    role of the therapist to understand and to properly evaluate exercise motions

    • choose those that provide:
    • 2.enjoyable
    • 3.appropriate exercise
  31. exercise prescription guidelines
    1. protect the vulnerable areas of the vertebral column

    avoid motion to the limit of flexion and hyperextension in the cervical and lumbar regions

    when exercising never hyperextend the trunk without stabiliziing the pelvis and keeping the head in line with the neck
  32. exercise prescription guidelines
    2. avoid combinations of motions of the vertebral column in more than one plane

    combination motions in more than one plane executed simultaneously or in sequence increase the compression forces applied to the discs
  33. exercise prescription guidelines
    3. do not force the knee into extreme flexion or hyperextension

    either action may weaken ligaments and other structure in the joint
  34. exercise prescription guidelines
    4. breath normally through the exercise to avoid increased undue stress on the cardiovascular system through increased intrathoracic pressure

    never hold the breath while exercising
  35. contraindications to exercise
    • absolute contraindications
    • reasons the patient should not exercise

    • relative contraindiations
    • exercise with caution or limitations

    conditions requiring special consideration and/or precautions
  36. strength and endurance exercise programs
    maximum resistance only occurs when the gravitational force is acting right angles to the lever

    principle of repetition maximum(RM)

    prime mover-muscle shortens
  37. strength and endurance exercise programs
    the return movement of concentric type exercises, when done in a slow, controlled manner

    • use eccentric contraction of the antagonist muscles
    • *muscle can sustain more tension in eccentric contraction than it can develop in concentric

    produces greater force/antagonist

    muscle lengthens
  38. aerobic vs anerobic
    • aerobic
    • with oxgen

    • exercise that is low enough intensity to be carried on for at least five minutes or longer
    • anaerobic
    • without oxygen

    exercise so intense that exhaustion ensues within 1-2 minutes

    O2 supply transported cannot meet demand of muscle
  39. plyometric exercises
    • utilization of eccentric contractions immediately followed by explosive concentric contraction
    • *this type of training takes advantage of:
    • 1.stretch reflex
    • 2.series elastic components of muscle
    • for the synchronous firing of motor units
    • system of high-velocity resistance training
    • characterized by rapid eccentric contraction during which the muscle elongates---
    • followed immediately by a rapid reversal of movement with a resisted shortening contraction of the same muscle
    • sources of resistance: body weight, elastic bands, weighted ball
  40. examples of plyometric activities
    • catching and throwing a weighted ball
    • dribbling a ball on the floor/wall
    • drop push-ups
    • clap push-ups
    • vertical jumps and reachehopping activities
    • jumping over objects on floor
  41. isometric
    primarily used in the rehabilitation of muscles surrounding injured joints
  42. isokinetic
    • muscle tension stays the same throughout the muscle remains constant
    • no acceleration so the velocity remains constant
    • permits maximum throughout the ROM at required speeds without endangering the joints
  43. evaluating exercises
    what is the purpose of the exercise?

    how effectively does it accomplish its purpose?

    does it violate any principles of good mechanics?

    what are the chief joint and muscle actions involved in it?

    what are its intensity and diffculty?

    • beginner, experienced, or advanced performer
    • are there elements of danger, injury or strain against which precautions should be taken?

    is it likely to call forth any undersirable or harmful responses against which the performer should be on guard?
  44. If the exercise is a difficult one...
    what preliminary exercise would serve to prepare the performer for it?

    ex: use good hand first to see what exercise is
  45. Prescription should always include
    • frequency
    • intensity
    • time
    • type