What two criteria is the five-kingdom system based on?
Whether an organism is unicellular or multicellular, and the type of nutrition that is practiced by the organism
What does prokaryotic mean?
Lacks nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
What does eukaryotic mean?
Has nuclei and membrane bound organelles
How are protists more complex than monerans?
The monerans evolved to give members rise to members of the kingdom Protista, and they are unicellular eukaryotes
How did three multicellular kingdoms evolve?
Autotrophs gave rise to the plant kingdom. Protists that are heterotrophic gave rise to the animal kingdom. The protists that are decomposers eventually give rise to the fungi kingdom.
Give two reasons why a new classification system is needed
A unicellular algae is classified as a protist, and organisms such as viruses do not fit into the five kingdoms
Why don't viruses fit into any of the five kingdoms?
Because they are subcellular (smaller than unicellular)
What are the two basic structural parts of a virus?
A nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) and a protein coat
What is a viral genome made of?
DNA or RNA
What is a viral capsid made of?
What are three things that viruses can do that living things cannot do?
Viruses never get any larger, they do not develop or change during their life cycle, and they cannot reproduce on their own.
What part of the virus enters the host cell?
What is "lysis"?
Lysis means to burst- new viruses burst out of controlled cell
Why do some scientists today think that Monera should be split into two kingdoms?
Because it is the biggest of all the five kingdoms
Is Kingdom Monera a small or large kingdom?
It is very large because all of the bacteria on Earth outweigh all other organisms
Name and describe three basic shapes of bacteria
Rod shaped-bacillus, Round-coccus, Spiral- spirochete
What do diplo, stepo, and staphylo mean?
Double, chain, and clump
Since monerans have no nucleus, where is their DNA?
Floating around in the cytoplasm
What is the only cellular organelle that bacteria have and what does it do?
Ribosomes that are used to produce proteins
Why are bacteria cells plant like and animal like?
It is plant like because it has a cell wall and it is animal like because it has a cell membrane
Describe what pilli (or fimbrae) are and what their function is
Pilli are tiny, hair-like structures that help bacteria attach to things and move
How do bacteria protect themselves against harsh environmental conditions?
Because they are covered in hard capsules made of polysaccharides
What two things do all protists have in common?
They are all unicellular and they are all eukaryotic
How do protists get their nutrition?
By feeding on other organisms, photosynthesis, and feeding on dead organisms
Why are protozoa called animal like protists?
Because they feed on other organisms and they are mobile
Give four examples of protozoa and explain how they move
Amoeba-moves with pseudopods, giardia-moves with flagella, paramecium-moves with cilia, sporozoa, non motile
Why are single-celled algae considered plant like?
Because they are autotrophic-they feed themselves through photosynthesis
Give two examples of plant-like protists and explain what is covering each
Dinoflagellate are covered in armour like plates that are reddish brown and glow in the dark. Diatoms are covered in carved glass shells.
What is another name for plant like protists?
What is the signifigance of plant like protists?
If there is food available, they eat it, but if there is no food available, they use photosynthesis to produce food
Where are fungus-like protists usually found?
In damp areas with decaying vegetation
How is external digestion of food different than internal digestion?
Because if you internally digest something, you eat it. If you externally digest something, the fungi stick their filamentous bodies into something and they break things down into molecules that can be absorbed.
How are fungi plant-like and non plant-like?
They are plant like because they have cell walls and they are non plant like because they consume other organisms for food
What makes up the body of a fungus?
Long filamentous branches called hyphae.
Is the mushroom a body of the fungus? If not, what part of a fungus is the mushroom?
No, it is the reproductive structure called the sporangium.
What is the sporangium and what does it produce?
The reproductive structure and it will release spores that will grow into new fungus
What are rhizoids and what is their function?
Specialized branches of hyphae that penetrate the surface of whatever the fungi is decomposing and absorb the nutrients to feed the fungus
How are sexual spores different from asexual spores?
Sexual reproduction results in fewer spores than in sexual reproduction, but the sexually produced spores are different than one another.