INT PHYS EXAM1 studyguide1 NERVES LANGUAGE

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INT PHYS EXAM1 studyguide1 NERVES LANGUAGE
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2011-10-02 19:50:41
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INT PHYS EXAM1 studyguide1 NERVES LANGUAGE
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INT PHYS EXAM1 studyguide1 NervousSystem Language
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  1. List the 4 main functions of the Nervous System
    1) detect info 2) recognize significance 3) "decide" on response 4) execute action
  2. Define afferent pathways
    sensory neurons carry info from PNS to CNS
  3. Define efferent pathways
    motor neurons carry info from CNS to effector organs
  4. List the 4 main regions of the spinal cord.
    cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral
  5. Explain the functional significance of the
    dorsal and ventral parts of the spinal cord
    • DORSAL carries afferent sensory info from PNS to CNS
    • VENTRAL carries efferent motor info from CNS to muscles and glands
  6. Define ascending and descending tracts
    • Ascending tracts carry sensory info from spinal cord to brain
    • Descending tracts carry commands to motor neurons from brain to spinal cord
  7. List and describe the 3 layers
    of meninges
    • Dura Mater - hard outer layer
    • Arachnoid Mater - spidery middle layer
    • Pia Mater - adherent soft inner layer
  8. Describe the components and function of the
    Ventricular System
    Comprised of 4 ventricles (2 laterals, interventricular foramen, and the 4th ventricle) that are hollow spaces in the brain filled with CSF secreted by the choroid plexus to provide norishment and protection
  9. Describe the blood-brain barrier
    The BBB is formed by the small pores (tight junctions) of blood vessels and the appendages of glial cell astrocytes preventing the passage of larger molecules. Allows for gas exchange, some drugs, alcohol, but no proteins
  10. List the 6 major divisions of the brain
    • 1) Cerebrum 2) Diencephalon (1+2=Forebrain)
    • 3) Cerebellum
    • 4) Midbrain 5) Pons 6) Medulla (4+5+6=Brain stem)
  11. List the components of the midbrain and state their functions
    • Tectum - "roof" - contains inferior colliculi involved in the auditory pathway and superior colliculi involved in the visual/auditory reflex response
    • Tegmentum - "covering" - controls motor function and regulateds awareness and attention
  12. List the functions of the pons
    • Relays info from the cerebrum to the cerebellum
    • involved in respiratory control with medulla
  13. List the components and the functions of the
    medulla oblongata
    • grey visceral nuclei controls autonomic motor functions
    • white matter contains ascending somatosensory tracts and descending corticospinal tracts
  14. State the function of the cerebellum
    processes info to regulate balance, posture, and coordinated movement
  15. What is the Midbrain also known as and what does it do?
    • AKA - mesencephalon
    • conduction pathway btw higher and lower brain centers
  16. List the components of the diencephalon
    Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Limbic system
  17. Describe the function of the thalamus
    relay station, memory processing
  18. Describe the functions of the hypothalamus
    center for homeostasis
  19. Describe the functions of the limbic system
    mediates emotional responses
  20. List the components of the limbic system
    • amygdala
    • cingulate gyrus
    • hippocampus
    • insular cortex
  21. What are the functions of the amygdala?
    anger, fear, and aggression
  22. What are the functions of the cingulare gyrus?
    involved in positive and negative emotional response
  23. What are the functions of the hippocampus?
    learning and memory
  24. What are the functions of the insular cortex?
    relates visceral sensations of emotion to rest of brain
  25. Describe the layers of grey matter comprising
    the cerebral cortex
    • Layer 1 - almost no cell bodies
    • Layer 2 - mainly inhibitory neurons
    • Layer 3 - mainly excitatory neurons
    • Layer 4 - mainly sensory signals
    • Layer 5 & 6 - pyramidal cells are major output cells of cortex
  26. List the 4 cerebral cortices and identify the
    major functions of each
    • Frontal lobe - coordinates info from other association areas
    • Parietal lobe - sensory integration from receptors
    • Occipital lobe - vision
    • Temporal lobe - hearing, memory
  27. Define sensory homunculus
    map showing which areas of the somatosensory cortex are devoted to particular body regions
  28. Relating to speech, what does the primary motor cortex do?
    makes the physical movements of speech
  29. Relating to speech, what does the arcuate fasciculus do?
    connects Wernicke's area to Broca's area
  30. Relating to speech, what does the angular gyrus do?
    recognizes written words
  31. Relating to speech, what does Wernicke's area do?
    comprehends speech / meaning of words
  32. Relating to speech, what does Broca's area do?
    plans speech

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