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List the 4 main functions of the Nervous System
1) detect info 2) recognize significance 3) "decide" on response 4) execute action
Define afferent pathways
sensory neurons carry info from PNS to CNS
Define efferent pathways
motor neurons carry info from CNS to effector organs
List the 4 main regions of the spinal cord.
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral
Explain the functional significance of the
dorsal and ventral parts of the spinal cord
- DORSAL carries afferent sensory info from PNS to CNS
- VENTRAL carries efferent motor info from CNS to muscles and glands
Define ascending and descending tracts
- Ascending tracts carry sensory info from spinal cord to brain
- Descending tracts carry commands to motor neurons from brain to spinal cord
List and describe the 3 layers
- Dura Mater - hard outer layer
- Arachnoid Mater - spidery middle layer
- Pia Mater - adherent soft inner layer
Describe the components and function of the
Comprised of 4 ventricles (2 laterals, interventricular foramen, and the 4th ventricle) that are hollow spaces in the brain filled with CSF secreted by the choroid plexus to provide norishment and protection
Describe the blood-brain barrier
The BBB is formed by the small pores (tight junctions) of blood vessels and the appendages of glial cell astrocytes preventing the passage of larger molecules. Allows for gas exchange, some drugs, alcohol, but no proteins
List the 6 major divisions of the brain
- 1) Cerebrum 2) Diencephalon (1+2=Forebrain)
- 3) Cerebellum
- 4) Midbrain 5) Pons 6) Medulla (4+5+6=Brain stem)
List the components of the midbrain and state their functions
- Tectum - "roof" - contains inferior colliculi involved in the auditory pathway and superior colliculi involved in the visual/auditory reflex response
- Tegmentum - "covering" - controls motor function and regulateds awareness and attention
List the functions of the pons
- Relays info from the cerebrum to the cerebellum
- involved in respiratory control with medulla
List the components and the functions of the
- grey visceral nuclei controls autonomic motor functions
- white matter contains ascending somatosensory tracts and descending corticospinal tracts
State the function of the cerebellum
processes info to regulate balance, posture, and coordinated movement
What is the Midbrain also known as and what does it do?
- AKA - mesencephalon
- conduction pathway btw higher and lower brain centers
List the components of the diencephalon
Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Limbic system
Describe the function of the thalamus
relay station, memory processing
Describe the functions of the hypothalamus
center for homeostasis
Describe the functions of the limbic system
mediates emotional responses
List the components of the limbic system
- cingulate gyrus
- insular cortex
What are the functions of the amygdala?
anger, fear, and aggression
What are the functions of the cingulare gyrus?
involved in positive and negative emotional response
What are the functions of the hippocampus?
learning and memory
What are the functions of the insular cortex?
relates visceral sensations of emotion to rest of brain
Describe the layers of grey matter comprising
the cerebral cortex
- Layer 1 - almost no cell bodies
- Layer 2 - mainly inhibitory neurons
- Layer 3 - mainly excitatory neurons
- Layer 4 - mainly sensory signals
- Layer 5 & 6 - pyramidal cells are major output cells of cortex
List the 4 cerebral cortices and identify the
major functions of each
- Frontal lobe - coordinates info from other association areas
- Parietal lobe - sensory integration from receptors
- Occipital lobe - vision
- Temporal lobe - hearing, memory
Define sensory homunculus
map showing which areas of the somatosensory cortex are devoted to particular body regions
Relating to speech, what does the primary motor cortex do?
makes the physical movements of speech
Relating to speech, what does the arcuate fasciculus do?
connects Wernicke's area to Broca's area
Relating to speech, what does the angular gyrus do?
recognizes written words
Relating to speech, what does Wernicke's area do?
comprehends speech / meaning of words
Relating to speech, what does Broca's area do?