A&P

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Author:
rhondam08
ID:
105630
Filename:
A&P
Updated:
2011-10-01 20:36:35
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Test two
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Description:
Bones
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  1. Name the four types of bone:
    • Long
    • Short
    • Flat
    • Irregular
  2. The dense white fibrous membrane covering the bone is ________.
    Periosteum
  3. Both ends of a long bone:
    Epiphysis
  4. Type of bone(s) having an inner part of cancellous bone covered on the outside with compact bone:
    • Short
    • Flat
    • Irregular
  5. Cancellous bone is synonyms with ________.
    Spongy Bone
  6. Layer of hyaline cartilage covering the epiphyses:
    Articular cartilage
  7. Cylindar-shaped structural units of compact bone:
    Osteons (haversion sytem)
  8. Bone-forming cells are ______ while bone reabsorbing cells are _______.
    • Osteoblasts
    • Osteocytes
  9. Mature bone cell:
    Osteocyte
  10. Concentric, cylinder-shaped layers of calcified matrix:
    Lamellae
  11. Ultrasmall canals radiating in all direction from the lacunae:
    Canaliculi
  12. Small spaces of tissue fluid in which bone cells are located:
    Lacunae
  13. Passageways extending lengthwise through the center of each osteon containing blood vessels and lymph vessels:
    Haversion cannals
  14. The development of bone from cartilage to adult bone:
    Ossification
  15. The fibrous covering of cartilage:
    Perichondrium
  16. The type of cartilage forming the external ear: ______the rings in the trachea ______:
    • Elastic
    • Hyaline
  17. Another name for cartilage:
    Gristle
  18. What is hematopoiesis?
    Formation of blood cells (white, red, and platelets)
  19. Why is yellow marrow nonfuntional?
    Because it is fat (adipose tissue) and does not produce blood cells.
  20. Give the location for red marrow in a child: _______ in yourself: ________
    • Entire skeleton
    • Ends of all long bones, ribs, & vertebrae
  21. What effect would a three pint blood loss have on yellow marrow?
    It would change to red marrow and make blood.
  22. Where is yellow marrow located in a long bone?
    Medulary cavity of the diaphysis
  23. Bones of the head, neck, and torso:
    Axial Skeleton
  24. Bones forming the appendages:
    Appendicular Skeleton
  25. An irregular bone anterior to the sphenoid and posterior to the nasals:
    Ethmoid
  26. U-shaped bone just above the larynx and below the mandible:
    Hyoid bone
  27. The two vertebral bones not having a vertebral foramen:
    • Sacrum
    • Coccyx
  28. The only bone in the body that does not articulate with any other bone:
    Hyoid
  29. Number of cervical vertebrae: ____ thoracic: _____ lumber: ______ sacral: _____ coccyxgeal: _____
    • 7
    • 12
    • 5
    • 1
    • 1
  30. Lies just posterior and lateral to the nasal bones:
    Lacrimal
  31. Shapes the cheek:
    Zygomatic
  32. Largest and stronges facial bone:
    Mandible
  33. Number of cranial bones: ______ facial bones: _____
    • 8
    • 14
  34. Two bones posterior to the hard palate:
    2 palantine bones
  35. Forms the posterior part of the nasal septum:
    Vomer
  36. What makes up the thorax?
    • Sternum
    • Ribs
    • Thoracic cavity
  37. The three parts of the sternum from superior to inferior:
    • Manubrium
    • Body
    • Xiphoid process
  38. What are true ribs? How many are there?
    • Have costal cartilage and attach directly to the sternum.
    • 7
  39. What are false ribs? How many are there?
    • Costal cartilage attach the sternum or not at all.
    • 5
  40. Where are false ribs attached? How many are there?
    • Thoracic vertebrae
    • 2
  41. The first cervical vertebrae: _____ the second cervical vertebrae _______
    • Atlas
    • Axis
  42. Upper jaw bone:
    Maxilla
  43. Forms the lower posterior part of the cranium:
    Occipital
  44. Give the location for the foramen magnum:
    Bottom of occipital
  45. Give the location for the vertebral foramen:
    Cannal through vertebra colomn for spinal cord
  46. The forehead bone:
    Frontal
  47. Bones containing the external auditory meatus:
    Temporal
  48. Discuss the advantages and disadvanteges of an exoskeleton and endoskeleton:
    ???
  49. List five functions for the skeletal system:
    • 1) Framework (for muscle attachment)
    • 2) Protection for vital organs
    • 3) Support
    • 4) Hemopoiesis
    • 5) Mineral Storage
  50. The shaft of a long bone: ____ type of bone: _____ type of marrow: ______ covering: _______
    • Diaphysis
    • Compact
    • Yellow
    • Periosteum
  51. Total number of bones:
    206
  52. Layer of cartilage separating the epiphysis and diaphysis:
    Epiphyseal plate (allows veriticle growth)
  53. Structure growing out from the bone surface:
    Projections (processes)
  54. Indentation of bone:
    Depressions (cavities)
  55. Myeloid tissue:
    Marrow
  56. the ends of a long bone: ____ type of bone: _____ type of marrow: _____ covering: ______
    • Epiphysis
    • Spongy (cancellous)
    • Red
    • Articular Cartilage (hyaline)
  57. Membrane lining the medullary cavetiy of a long bone: ____ type of tissue: _____
    • Endosteum
    • Epithelial
  58. What is an unusual property of yellow marrow?
    It can swith to red marrow, and as red marrow make blood.
  59. Forms the nasal septum (bone):
    Vomer
  60. Sharp slender projection on a bone:
    Spine
  61. Area between the head and shaft of a bone:
    Neck
  62. Air-filled cavities:
    Sinuses
  63. Shallow depressions in a bone:
    Fossa
  64. Narrow ridge of bone:
    Crest
  65. Rounded projections at the distal end of a long bone:
    Condyle
  66. Canal-like passage:
    Meatus
  67. What are sutures in the cranium?
    Immovable joints
  68. Which facial bone does not join the maxilla?
    Mandible
  69. Facial bones projecting from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity:
    Inferior nasal conchae
  70. Number of bones in the vertebral column:
    26
  71. Round central part of vertebra:
    Body (centrum)
  72. Two lateral projections from the body of vertebrae:
    Transverse process
  73. Canal through which the spinal cord passes:
    Vertebral foramen
  74. What happens to the size of the vertebral body as you move inferiorly on the vertebral colomn?
    Expands-gets larger
  75. Give the location for the end of the spinal cord:
    Lumbar 2
  76. How is bone growth in diameter made possible?
    Osteoclasts and osteoblasts
  77. What function is served by collagenous fibers in bone?
    Reinforcement- add strength
  78. Transverse chambers connecting haversion canals to each other:
    Volkmann's cannal
  79. What are trabeculae?
  80. Which cells enlarge the diameter of the medullary cavity?
    Osteoclasts
  81. Which cells in the periosteum build new bone around the outside of the existing bone?
    Osteoblasts
  82. What material attaches ribs to the sternum? ______ type of tissue: _____
    • Cartilage
    • Connective
  83. What are osteons?
    Haversian systems in compact bone
  84. The arched ridge just below the eyebrow on the frontal bone:
    Supraorbital margin
  85. Spaces or cavities behind the eyes:
    Sinuses
  86. Notch in the supraorbital are of the frontal bone:
    Supraorbital foramen
  87. Protuberance on the temporal bone just behind the ear:
    Mastoid process
  88. Projection of temporal that articulates with the zygomatic:
    Zygomatic process
  89. Hole on the external surface of the maxillary just below the orbit:
    Infraorbital foramen
  90. Where is the mental foramen?
    On the mandible
  91. Describe the microscopic structure of bone and cartilage:
    ?????
  92. Describe the structure of a long bone:
  93. List and disuss each of the major anatomical components that constitute an osteon:
  94. Compare and contrast the basic structural elements of bone and cartilage:
  95. Compare the structure and function of the three types of cartilage:

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