History 311 Ch 19

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History 311 Ch 19
2011-10-15 17:11:26
History 311 19

Spanish American War 19
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  1. What was the Spanish American War
    1898 4 months. American Victory. Cuba, Puerto Rico and Phillipines. Started american colonialism. Informal entered east asia and caribean.
  2. What is Imperialism?
    colonizing foreign nations and lands
  3. What is the european imperialism?
    old colonial empires. 17th and 18th century. exploiting colonies economic gain. raw materials. self imposed civilizing mission. spread western culture and values to non white and non christian populations thru africa and asia. Britian was the most imperial power at the time. Britian france, germany had established empires thru most of africa, east asia. manifest destiny
  4. What did the telegraph cables do?
    They could send information with and volume throughout the world.
  5. What did Steam powered ships do to advance the world?
    The reduced time and people across the world. 1890's. 1890 onward the US build battle ships to advance it's economic power and expansion for its ambitions. 2nd most powerful navy behind the British.
  6. What social darwinism?
    an ideology that applied 19th century, charles darwins theroy, of biological evolution. applied the theory to economic and nationalistic asperations. Survival of the fittest. Wealth were the fit and the poor and weak were the unfit.
  7. Who Josiah Strong?
    American believed anglosaxon race will prevail.
  8. What were progresser focused on?
    in favor of the call to spread american values abroad. a way to spread impearial reach. Some opposed it. Some believed it drew attention away from reform projects at home.
  9. What started the Spanish American War?
    started with a rebellion in Cuba that was a spanish colony. US had strong ties in Cuba and favored their independance. Cuban exiles in the US garnishing support for the revolution.
  10. What is reconcentration?
    a policy that tried to crush the rebellion by forcing the cuban farmers off their lands and destroying their crops. Farmers were feeding the rebels. in cuba. Killed 100000 people. Outragged the US.
  11. What is the yellow press?
    journalist really made it a really big deal to get people in the US rilled up over it. melodramatic partially fictionalized story. Vivid illustrations about spanish brutality. some spanish ambasdor made comments about McKinley and it was considered the worst insult in US history. The battle ship Maine blew up in havana harbor.
  12. What happened to the US Maine?
    It was a faulty ship explosion, although the us said it was a Spanish mine. It could of been cuban rebels getting the US on their side because the US would blame the spanish. trying to convince us they had a humanitarian duty to help cuba because of the reconcentration policy.
  13. What was the teller ammendment of 1898?
    Henry M Teller, to leave the control of the island of cuba to their people at the end of the war. Leave cuba to the cubans. No other nation in Caribean or Pacific got that deal.
  14. How was the Spanish American excuted?
    lasted 4 months 1898. went to phillipines in Manila Harbor and destroyed the spanish pacific fleet. that captured the phillipines for US. phillipines were They blockaded the Spanish fleet in Santiago in Cuba. Teddy Rosevelt (left the asst sec of navy)formed the first horse calvary volunteer to fight in cuba. Called the rough riders. San Juan Heights they had a battle. Journalist Richard Harding Davis watched the fight.
  15. When was Hawaii over thrown?
    Over thru queen in 1893 Liluokalani.
  16. What made Roosevelt popular?
    The battle of San Juan heights and rosevelt was not first but the 9th and 10th calvary who were african american were actually first.
  17. What did the US do to the Spanish Fleet at Santiago?
    Us naval ships blocked the ports once navy entered the ships. Trapped them in Santiago City in the harbor. When the spanish fleet tried to make run for it, US sank or beached every vessel.
  18. What was end of the war?
    US forces landed in Puerto Rico, light resistance. They faught one more battle in Manila on 8/13/1898. The battle was fought the day after the war ended. They didn't get the word. With the celebrations, yellow fever, tifoid, milaria were tropical diseases. 385 were killed in combat and 2000 were killed from disease. Dec 10th 1898 was the treaty of Paris. Spain reliquished Cuba. The US recieved Puetro Rico, and smaller caribean islands and guam. In return for 20 million spain turned philipines over to US. (debate on whether to make a colony or turn it over)
  19. What deal to Cuba make with the US before pulling out troops?
    Cuba became a nation in name only because we required concession in order to take troops out: platt ammendment 1901. required cuba to give US the right to maintain a naval base at Guantaimo bay and also the right to intervein militarially in cuba to protect life, property and indivudual liberty. Had a privledged trading relationship to cuba. Cuba needed permission from US before entering into treaties with other nations.
  20. What is a protectorate?
    a relationship in which a superior power assumes athority over a weaker country or territory. Protecting it from invasion and sharing in managing its affairs.
  21. What did the US do to seek international recognition as a world power?
    Americas growing pride in their nation's economic might and technological prowess encouraged the US to seek international recognition as a world power. Social Darwinism, survival of the fittest used to justify the dominance of the welthy and powerful who considered the poor as unfit and weak (unfit). It fit their explanation why Britian, France and Germany were able to easily dominate nonwhite people of the world.
  22. What were the Progressives view on extending its imperial reach?
    Progressives never spoke with one voice with competing voices on domestic matters and they offered competing visions on domestic matters as well as expanding US influence on the world. They believed that it was at the expense of foreign exploited peoples and American workers.They believed it drew attention away from issues at home.
  23. What was the first oppurtunity to expand US influence oversea?
    It was when cuba revolted against Spainish rule. Due to the mysterious explosion of the US Maine, and uproar with Americans because of the coverage, president McKinley decided to declare war or congress would have done it. The war was short which ended with a peace treaty that granted the US island possessions in the Caribbean and Pacific that became the territorial foundation for the new US colonial empire.
  24. What was the Yellow Press/
    tabloid journalists and newspapers that reported sensationalist stories with a strong emotional compinent, fueled public anger against the spanish.This was formed by the yellow kid comic strips in the leading New York newspapers calle dthe yellow kid. Publications would compete on who could print the most lurid tales
  25. What wa the decision to intervene in Cuba?
    McKinley turned to diplomacy toend the impasse over Cuba. He asked Spain to gran Cuba more autoonomy. In 1897 the Spanish ended reconcentration by allowing peasants placed in reconcentration compounds to return to their homes. Spain allowed a limited Cuban self government. Cubans still loyal to Spain rioted in Havana. Maine was sent to deter loyalists from attaching Americans and their interests. After the Maine exploded, an official naval investigation erroneously blamed a Spanish harbor mine for the disater rather than a faulty ship design. McKinely tried to convince spain to grant cuba independance. Roosevelt was for war. Spain declared war on the US on 4/21/1898.
  26. What was the Teller Ammendment of 1898?
    Promised to leave the government and control of the Cuban Island to its people at the end of the Spanish-American War. Congress made no promise to the rest of the Spanish control in the Caribbean and Pacific.
  27. Why did the US first attack Spain in the phillippines?
    Commodore George Dewey sailed to Manila Harbor in the Phillippines and destroyed the Spanish Pacific Fleet. The first battle to liberate Cuba was half way around the world. By doing this the Americans learned the phillipines were in the midst of their own revolution against the Spaniards. ZThe US stategically shut down their pacific fleet so they could not sail to cuba.
  28. Why did Hawaii lose its independance in a war to liberate cuba?
    Americans were devided on annexing hawaii for a decade. Americans owned sugar plantations dominated the Hawaiin economy, American Missionaries had waged a successful campaign to eradicate native religions. US navy had established a permanent naval station at Peral Harbor on the island of Oahu. Queen Liluuokalani was promised to cutrail US dominance over Hawaiian politics and agriculture. US businessmen and missionaries overthrew the queen. THe Marines were sent to protect American property ensured the revolutions success. 1000's of Hawaiians took to the streets in protest.
  29. What happened after the revolution in Hawaii?
    The new Hawaiian government requested annexation by the US and McKinley granted it to fost US commercial interests in the Pacific. In 1897 the Hawaiian Patriotic League successfullyy blocked a formal US takeover by presenting the senate with a petition signed by over 1/2 hawaiians. The senate voted the annexation down. A year later the Spanish-American war the senate reversed and supporters for the annexation successfully argued that US Ships headed to the philioppines needed guaranteed access to the naval way station in Pearl Harbor. The US put its own strategic and economic needs ahead of the Hawaiians and assumed sovereignty on 7/7/1898.
  30. Who and how were the Rough Riders formed?
    theodore Roosevelt resigned as assistant secretary of the navy and formed the First US Volunteer Calvary by recruiting Americans with diverse backgrounds. Roosevelt a Harvard grad, who was a hunter, and former police commish of NY, assembled a collection of cowboys, Ivy League athletes, city police officers and Pawnee scouts. June 22, 17000 US troops landed in Cuba in Santiago. With the Rebels they charged up the hill in San Juan. The African American troops of the 9th and 10th calvary reached the top first. The Spanish were surrounded. When the Spanish tried to flee the US Navy sunk them.
  31. When did the Spanish surrender and where did the US go next?
    On July 17th the Spanish surrendered. The US forces landed in Puerto Rico, also a caribbean Spanish Colony. Not much opposition. US fought one more battle in Manila on 8/13 have not yet recieved the word of the end of the war. (ended the day before).
  32. How did the war end on a sour note?
    The high costs of fighting in the tropics, and limited understanding of malaria, yellow fever, and typhoid spread, physcians could not stop the outbreak on US troops in 1898. In desperation the military turned to female nurses. 1500 red cross nurse. 385 killed in combat, and 2000 deaths from disease.
  33. When was the peace treaty signed?
    Dec 10 1898, ended the spanish american war. The Treaty of Paris, Spain gave up claim to Cuba, US recieved puerto rico, some smaller caribbeanislands, and the Pacific island group of Guam. 20 million for the phillipines.
  34. What steps did the United States take to construct a formal and informal empire after its victory in Spain?
    Despite the Teller Ammendment, Cuba became an independant nation in name only. With the link to american withdrawl of troops, there were concessions from cuba. The Platt Ammendment 1901 required cuba to give the US the right to maintain a naval base at Guantanamo Bay and to intervene militarily in Buba to protect life, property and individual liberty. US Priviledged trading agreement. Cuba needed permission from US to trade with others. Cuba became a protectorate (a relationship which a superior power assumes authority over a weaker country or territory to protect it from invasion and to share in managing its affairs. US occuppied Cuba several times before congree repealed the Platt Act in 1934. They kept Guantanamo Bay.
  35. What competeing economic arguments did imperialists and anti-imperialists offer about the colonies?
    The Phillippines were argued about were a strategic and commercial importance of the nations new island possessions. Trade follows the flag. The closeness to China underscored the importance of trade. The US supposedly needed to take its rightful place alongside other world powers with colonial empires in East Asia.
  36. How did America's racial views influence the debate over colonizing the Phillippines?
    Mckinley believed the Phillippines were unfit to rule on their own. Americans racial and moral superiority helped the so called unclivilized people. Most Filipinos were catholic, and US wanted to change them to protestants. 1900-1904 Insular Cases, the Supreme COurt addirmed Congresses authority to govern the Phillippines, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico as colonies. Could not become citizens until they were declared territories. They would not allow a fair trial, however allowed natural rights like free speech and religion. Constitution followed the flag but did not quite catch up to it. America granted Hawaii and Alaska citizenship in 1900 and full protection under the bill of rights. Puerto Rico 1917. Fillipinos never. Good quote from McKinley pg 575.
  37. How did the imperialists define the nations civilizing mission>
    British poet 1899 Rudyard Kipling entered the American debate over colonizing the Philippines in Mclures and published the "White Man's Burden," which was the anglo-saxons quest to better the lives of so-calle racially inferior peoples by spreading western economic, cultural, and spiritual values and institutions. To Kipiling the white man refered to more that color. They were the symbol embraced by moral standards and values. Roosevelt said the poem was as "rather poor poestry, but good sense from the expansionist standpoint". Black papers countered with poems on the Black mans burden of living in a county that accepted Jim Crow practices in the south.
  38. What tactics did the US army adopt to fight the Filipino army?
    1/20/1899 rebel Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo declared the Phillipines independant. He formed a provisional govt. Fighting began on 2/4/1899 in the outskirst of Manila. US called it an insurrection (term for an illigitimate revolt). War between 1899-1902 the US defeated them. 70000 US soliders (70% of army) fought and 4234 died US. 220000 Filipinos died. Filipinos resorted to ambushes, sniping, and sabotage which US called Amigo Warfare. The US during the war built roads, improved sanitation, vaccinated civilians, and created schools. US tactics were shoot, burn villiages and crops and deprive rebels of shelter and food which encourage them to take the side of the rebels. Adopted water torture calling to a water cure. African Americans fought in the Phillipines. Whites called the filipinos niggers. Rebels posted signs chastizing the Blacks for fighting. Aguinaldo was captured in 1901.1900 William Howard Taft was the first civilian governor General of the Phillipines. 1904 St. Louis Fair exhibits of championed the imperialist vision by displaying a Phillipine reservation display which included feasts of dogs, and headhunting. It suggested that the US had a right to become a colonial power.
  39. Why did Americans develop a strong interest in China at the turn of the century?
    China granted commercial privledges to every world power. The strategy prevented any one foreign nation from gaining too much power in a time where Europe and Japan colonized many Asian lands. The worlds leading nations decended on China to each claim a SPHERE OF INFLUENCE, the term used to describe the exclusive political and trading rights that a foreign nation enjoyed within another terrotory. McKinley never considered sending troops to China. Secretary of State John Hay circulated a carefully worded set of notes that laid the foundation for the OPEN DOOR POLICY a US sponsored nonbinding international agreement that kept the Chinese market open to all foreign nations. Hay did not consult China with this agreement. A secret society in China called the Righteous and Harmounious Fists initiated a terrorist campaign to drive the foreign devils out of china (secretly funded by chinise govt). Westerners called them the Boxers, and an international force of ground troops and battleships assembled to crust the insurgency because they attacked foriegners at will. Boxers took diplomats and businessmen hostage in Bejing. Mckinley sent 2500 troops to free the hostages and end the rebellion and the international commission asked for 333 million in indemities from china. US used it shares to provide scholarshios for Chines students to study at american universities.
  40. How did domestic racial prejudices affect diplomatic relations with Japan?
    Japan and Russia fought to control the resource rich manchurian province of china. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 threatened the power the US had in China. Roosevelt offered to negotiate a peace treaty. 1905 Japan defeated Russia and came to a peace table in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 1906 Roosevelt recieved the Nobel Peace Prize. Asians in CA were the Yellow Peril. In the GENTLEMANS AGREEMENT (1907-1908), the government agreed to deny passports to Japanese workers intending to immigrate to the US. This helped Japan escape the indignity of joining China as the only other nation legally banned from sending immigrants workers to the US.
  41. How was Angel Island formed?
    Under the gentlemans agreement, Japanese businessmen could bring over wives (picture brides) matchmaker. After the earthquake in SF in 1921, there was no records to tell who was a citizen and who wasn't and hundreds of chinese men successfully claimed citizenship.and brought over paper sons whose families paid fees to bring over. 1910 Angel Island was open and to verify identities of Jap and Chinese claiming the right to enter the US. Chinese paper sons endured long detentions while their identities were investigated. Quizzed sons and fathers seperately and refused to enter anyone who did not match.
  42. What did CA do to the Japanese?
    1919 CA polititions passed a law that made it illegal for Japs to own property. Japs could not become citizens. Takao Ozawa v. US 1922 the supreme court held that japs immigrants were ineligible for citizenship because they were not white. Japan stopped issuing passports to picture brides in 1921. Congress banned all immigration from Jap in 1924.
  43. How dud US intervention in Panama compare with its colonization of the Phillipines?
    American canal advocates emphasized increased trade and better defense reasons for building the canal. Completed in 1914 to link the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The canal project received a boost by President Roosevelt. 1903 panama revolted against Columbia fearing it would lose everything. Roosevelt wrongly used the 1846 agreement to block efforts of the columbians and in 1920 congress sent 25 million for Roosevelts transgressions. Dec 31 1999 US turned over the panama canal to panama.
  44. How did the Roosevelt Corollary bolster US stature a a world power?
    To prevent military incursions into the wenstern hemisphere, roosevelt announced a corollary to the 1823 Monroe Doctrine, which declared the western hemisphere off limits to further European Colonization. The Roosevelt Corollary of 1904 that had the us act as a debt collector for europe.