Fluid & electrolytes(part 60-90)

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Ted
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10564
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Fluid & electrolytes(part 60-90)
Updated:
2010-03-16 21:06:14
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electrotlyes Sodium Hypernatremia Hypotatrimia Hypovolemia hypervolemia potassium
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Fluid and electrolytes for nursing II
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  1. _______ imbalances are typically associated with parallel changes in osmolality.
    Sodium imbalances are typically associated with parallel changes in _______.
  2. Sodium plays a major role in what 3 areas.
    • 1) ECF volume and concentration
    • 2) Generation and transmission of nerve impulses
    • 3) Acid-base balance
    • What electrolyle plays a major role in these 3 things?
  3. Define hypernatremia?
    An elevated serum sodium occurring with water loss or sodium gain.
  4. Hypernatremia causes _________ leading to cellular dehydration.
    _________ causes hyperosmolality leading to cellular dehydration.
  5. Whats the primary protective mechanism for hypernatrimia and what organ controls it.
    Thirst is the primary protective mechanism for _________, and the hypothalamus is the organ that controls it.
  6. Manifestations of hypernatremia included what (5).
    • 1) Thirst
    • 2) Lethargy
    • 3) Agitation
    • 4) Seizures
    • 5) Coma

    These manifestations would indicate what?
  7. If hypernatremia is secondary to water deficiency it often results in what?
    An impaired LOC is a sign of hypernatremia secondary to ______ _______.
  8. _________ can be produced by clinical states such as central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
    Hypernatremia can be produced by clinical states such as central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
  9. Management of hypernatremia include what (3)?
    • 1) Treat the underlying cause
    • 2) If oral fluids cannot be ingested, IV solution of 5% dextrose in water or hypotonic saline.
    • 3) Diuretics

    These would be for the management of what?
  10. In hypernatremia serum sodium levels must be reduced gradually to avoid _____ _____.
    In _______ serum sodium levels must be reduced gradually to avoid cerebral edema.
  11. Name a nursing diagnosis for hypernatremia
    Risk for injury
  12. Define hyponatremia.
    Low serum sodium occuring with water excess or loss of sodium-containing fluids.
  13. Clinical manifestation of hyponatremia. (5)
    • 1) Confusion
    • 2) Nausea
    • 3) Vomiting
    • 4) Seizures
    • 5) Coma

    These are clinical manifestation of what?
  14. If hyponatremia is caused by fluid excess what is needed
    Fluid restriction is needed when hyponatremia is caused by _____ ______.
  15. If severe symptoms like seizures occure with hyponatremia what can be given to treat it?
    Small amounts of IV hypertonic saline sloution (3% NaCl) are given for what symptom of hyponatremia?
  16. If hyponatremia is associated with abnormal fluid loss what should be done.
    Fluid replacement with sodium-containing solution is done in what situation with hyponatremia?
  17. What's a nursing diagnosis for hyponatremia?
    Risk for injury.
  18. Hypovolemia can occure with (3).
    • 1) Loss of normal body fluids (diarrhea, fistula drainage, hemorrhage).
    • 2) decreased intake
    • 3) Plasma-to-interstitial fluid shift

    These things can cause what to occure?
  19. Hypervolemia may result from (3).
    • 1) Excessive intake of fluids
    • 2) abnormal retention of fluids (CHF)
    • 3) interstitial-to-plasma fluid shifts

    These things can cause what to occure?
  20. What is the treatment for hypovolemia?
    • Replace water and electrolytes
    • 1) A balanced IV solution
    • 2) Isotonic chloride
    • 3) Blood

    These 3 things are treatments for _________
  21. Treatments for hypervolemia are (3).
    • 1) Use of diuretics
    • 2) Fluid restriction
    • 3) Sodium restriction

    These things are treatments for ________.
  22. Name 4 nursing diagnosis for hypervolemia.
    • 1) Excess fluid volume
    • 2) Ineffective airway clearance
    • 3) Risk for inpaired skin integrity
    • 4) Disturbed body image

    These 4 things could be nursing diagnosis for what?
  23. Name 2 potential complications for hypervolemia.
    • 1) pulminary edema
    • 2) Ascites

    These two things are potential complications for _________.
  24. Name 2 nursing diagnosis for Hypovolemia.
    • 1) Deficient fluid volume
    • 2) Decreased cardiac output

    These two nursing diagnosis would be for _________.
  25. Possible complication for hypovolemia.
    hypovolemic shock is a possible complication for _________.
  26. What are some nursing managements and implementations for hypo & hypervolemia?
    • 1) Monitor I&O
    • 2) Assess respiratory status and monitor changes
    • 3) Take daily weights
    • 4) Assess skin
    • 5) Assess neurologic function

    You would do these things in what possible patient situation?
  27. What neurologic functions would you assess in hypo & hypervolemia? (5)
    • 1) LOC
    • 2) PERLA
    • 3) Voluntary movement of extremities
    • 4) Muscle strenght
    • 5) reflexes

    These things would be done in a neurologic test when a pateint has ______ or ______
  28. Major ICF cation.
    Potassium is a major cation in the _____.
  29. Potassium is necessary for (4).
    • 1) Transmission and conduction of nerve impulses
    • 2) Maintenance of normal cardiac rhythms
    • 3) Skeletal muscle contraction
    • 4) Acid-base balance

    What electrolyte is necessary for these?
  30. ________ is critical to action membrane potential.
    Potassium is critical to _____ ______ potential.

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